1990-03 – Radiolgoical characterization report of FUSRAP properties in the St Louis, Missouri, Area

1990-03-radiolgoical-characterization-report-of-fusrap-properties-in-the-st-louis-missouri-area

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DOE/OR/20722-203

RECEJVFJ)
MAH ~ o;gqo RDn. SECnoH
RADIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION REPORT FOR FUSRAP PROPERTIES IN THE ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI, AREA
VOLUME I
MARCH 1990
Prepared for
United State1 Department of Enerqy
Oak Ridge Operations Off ice
Under Contract No. DE-ACOS-810R20722

111111111 ~ 1~111111 ~111111111111111111111111111 Ill S00183393 SUPERFUND RECORDS
By JC. C. Noey
c. M. Sekula
Bechtel National, Inc. Oak Ridge, Tennessee
Bechtel Job No. 14501

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Radioloqical characterization aurveys were conducted on properties located in Hazelwood, Berkeley, and St. Louis, Missouri. Areas surveyed include the Norfolk and Western Railroad Properties; portions of Latty Avenue, McDonnell Boulevard, Hazelwood Avenue, and Pershall Road (the haul roads) and associated properties; Latty Avenue vicinity properties: portions of Coldwater Creek and its vicinity properties; and the St. Louis Airport Site (SLAPS) vicinity properties.
The surveys were performed as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Proqram (FUSRAP), a U.S. Department of Enerqy (DOE)
proqram to identify and clean up or otherwise control sites where
residual radioactive contamination (exceedinq current quidelines)
remains from the early years of the nation’s atomic enerqy program or from commercial operations causinq conditions that Congress has mandated DOE to remedy.
These St. Louis sites have been included on the National Priorities List, a list of sites identified for remedial action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, also known as Superfund. Plans are currently under way to initiate a remedial investi9ation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the St. Louis sites. The data collected from the radiological surveys discussed in this report will be incorporated into the RI and FS processes for these sites.
Radiolo9ical surveys were conducted on Missouri FUSRAP properties for DOE from 1986 through 1989 by Bechtel National, Inc., the FUSRAP project management contractor, and its radioloqical subcontractor, Thermo Analytical/Eberline. The results are presented in this report. The 9oal of the surveys was to identify radionuclide& present on the properties at above-quideline concentrations and to determine depths and areal limits of such radioactive
iii

contamination. This qoal was achieved: however, there are some properties identified in thia report for which the precise boundaries of radioactive contamination have not yet been determined. A limited number of additional soil samples will be required to define the extent of contamination identified for these properties. Data collected froa areas adjacent to these properties have been extrapolated, both horizontally and vertically, to provide a conservative overestimate of the volume of contaminated soil present. Additional soil samples will be collected and analyzed from these limited areas before remedial action beqins. The data from these additional soil samples will be provided in an addendum to this characterization report.
Survey results indicate that radioactive contamination is present on some of the properties in concentrations exceeding current DOE quidelines. In qeneral, the contamination is shallow (i.e., confined to the top two feet of soil) and occurs in relatively low concentrations. The principal radioactive contaminant is thorium-230, although analyses also identified elevated levels of uranium-238 and radium-226.
Although thorium-230 was identified in concentrations exceeding DOE quidelines, there are no immediate health risks to people in the vicinity, qiven the current use of the properties. Thorium-230 emits alpha radiation, which cannot penetrate the dead layer of skin on a person’s body: therefore, there is no external exposure hazard. Tborium-230 poses a radiological hazard only if it is
ingested or inhaled. The guidelines were derived to protect a member of the general public even if an individual built a house over the contamination, lived there for so years, qrew all his own food, ate meat from cattle qrazinq in the area, drank milk from cows grazing in the area, and drank water from the contaminated area. Because none of these pathways of exposure applies at the St. Louis FUSRAP properties, and given the nature of thorium-230, the contamination poses virtually no hazard.
iv

Throuqhout the RI/FS process, public comments will be solicited to provide an opportunity for the public to participate in the desiqn and implementation of the RI/FS process and, ultimately, to allow for public involvement in the selection of cleanup options. At this point, most of the field investigations necessary for the St. Louis area FUSRAP sites have been completed. Data from these investiqations will be documented in an RI report. The FS will utilize information from the RI to develop and evaluate cleanup alternatives and will ultimately lead to a record of decision by the
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and DOE for implementation of the selected alternative. It is important to realize, however, that selection of a final cleanup alternative will be done as part of the RI/FS process described above. This process will evaluate a full ranqe of reasonable alternatives including on-site disposal (i.e., at SLAPS) and off-site disposal. The public will have a continuinq role in the process throuqh review of reports and attendance at public meetings. oversiqht of the entire RI/FS process will be provided by EPA and the Missouri Department of Natural Resources.
v

TABLE OF CONTENTS

List of Fiqures List of Tables Acronyms Abbreviations
l.O Introduction
1.1 Purpose and Objectives
1.2 Location and Description
1.3 History and Previous Radioloqical surveys
1.3.1 Latty Avenue Vicinity Properties
1.3.2 Coldwater Creek and Vicinity Properties
1.3.3 Norfolk and Western Railroad Properties and SLAPS Vicinity Properties
1.3.4 Haul Roads
References for Section 1.0

2.0 Study Area Investigation
2.1 Grid System
2.2 Radiological Surveys
2.2.1 Methods
2.2.2 Sample Collection and Analysis
2.3 Characterization Results
2.4 Background Measurements
Reference for Section 2.0
3.0 Characterization Result• Vicinity Properties
3.1 Property l
3.2 Property 2
3.3 Property 3
3.4 Property 4
3.5 Property 5
3.6 Property 6
for the Latty Avenue
Paqe
xi xxv xxvi xxvii
1-1
1-1 1-3 1-13 1-16 1-17
1-18 l-18 1-19
2-1
2-1
2-5
2-5
2-10
2-12
2-14
2-16
3-1
3-1 3-2 3-3 3-3 3-4 3-4
vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)

4.0 Characterization Results for the Norfolk and Western
Railroad Properties 4-1
4.1 Norfolk and Western Railroad Property Adjacent to 9200 Latty Avenue 4-1
4.2 Norfolk and Western Railroad Property Adjacent to Hanley Road 4-2
4.3 Norfolk and Western Railroad Property South of SLAPS 4-3
4.4 Norfolk and Western Railroad Property Adjacent to Coldwater Creek 4-3
4.5 Norfolk and Western Railroad Property Adjacent to Hazelwood Avenue and south of Latty Avenue 4-4
4.6 Norfolk and Western Railroad Property Adjacent to Hazelwood Avenue and North of Latty Avenue 4-5
4.7 Norfolk and Western Railroad Property Adjacent to Eva Avenue 4-5
5.0 Characterization Results for the Haul Roads and Associated Properties 5-1
5.1 Latty Avenue, McDonnell Boulevard, Hazelwood Avenue, and Pershall Road 5-2
5.2 Property l 5-5
5.3 Property 2 5-6
5.4 Property 3 5-6
5.5 Property 4 5-6
5.6 Property 5 5-6
5.7 Property 6 5-7
5.8 Property 7 5-7
5.9 Property 8 5-7
5.10 Property 9 5-7
5.11 Property 10 5-8
5.12 Property 11 5-8
5.13 Property 12 5-8
5.14 Property 13 5-9
vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

5.15 Property 14
5.16 Property 14A
5.17 Property 15
5.18 Property 16
S.19 Property 17
S.20 Property 18
5.21 Property 19
5.22 Property 20
S.23 Property 20A
S.24 Property 21
5.25 Property 22
5.26 Property 23
S.27 Property 24
S.28 Property 25
5.29 Property 26
5.30 Property 27
5.31 Property 28
5.32 Property 29
5.33 Property 30
5.34 Property 31
5.35 Property 31A
5.36 Property 32
5.37 Property 33
5.38 Property 34
S.39 Property 35
S.40 Property 37
S.41 Property 38
5.42 Property 39
S.43 Property 40
S.44 Property 41
5.45 Property 42
5.46 Property 43
(continued)
Paae
5-9 5-10 5-10 5-11 5-11 5-11 5-12 5-12 5-12 5-13 5-13 5-13 5-13 5-14 5-14 5-14 5-15 5-15 5-15 5-15 5-16 5-16 5-16 5-17 S-17 5-18 5-19 5-21 5-22 S-22 5-22 5-22
viii

TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)
5.47 Property 44
5.48 Property 45
5.49 Property 46
5.50 Property 47
5.51 Property 48
5.52 Property 48A
5.53 Property 49
5.54 Property 50
5.55 Property 51
5.56 Property 52
5.57 Property 53
5.58 Property 54
5.59 Property 55
5.60 Property 56
S.61 Property 57
5.62 Property 58
S.63 Property 59
5.64 Property 60
5.65 Property 61
5.66 Property 62
S.67 Property 63
5.68 Property 63A
Reference for Section s.o

6.0 Characterization Results for Coldwater Associated Properties
6.1 Coldwater Creek
6.2 Property 1
6.3 Property 2
6.4 Property 3
6.5 Property 4
6.6 Property 5
Page
5-23 5-23 5-23 5-24 5-24 5-24 5-25 5-25 5-25 5-25 5-26 5-26 5-26 5-26 5-27 5-27 5-28 5-28 5-28 5-28 5-28 5-29 5-30
Creek and
6-1
6-1 6-3 6-3 6-4 6-4 6-5
ix

TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)

6.7 Property 6 6-5
6.8 Property 7 6-6
6.9 Property 8 6-6
6.10 Property 9 6-7
6.11 Property 10 6-7
7.0 Characterization Results for the Vicinity Properties Adjacent to SLAPS 7-1
7.1 Banshee Road 7-1
7.2 Ditches to the North and South of SLAPS 7-2
7.3 St. Louis Airport Authority Property 7-2
7.4 Ball Field Area 7-3
x

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Title 1-1 Locations of FUSRAP Properties in the St. Louis, 1-2 Missouri, Area 1-2 Locations of the Latty Avenue Properties and 1-4 SLAPS 1-3 Locations of the Latty Avenue Vicinity Properties 1-6 1-4 Locations of the Haul Roads surveyed by BNI for DOE 1-7 1-5 Locations of the Haul Roads Vicinity Properties 1-9 1-6 Locations of the SLAPS Vicinity Properties 1-12 1-7 Locations of the Coldwater Creek Vicinity Properties 1-15 2-1 Survey Grid for the Vicinity Properties Adjacent to Latty Avenue 2-2 2-2 Survey Grid for the Haul Roads and Associated Vicinity Properties 2-3 2-3 survey Grid !or the SLAPS Vicinity Properties 2-4 2-4 survey Grid for Coldwater Creek 2-6 2-5 Gamma Exposure Rate Measurement Locations at the Norfolk and Western Railroad Property Adjacent to HISS 2-8 2-6 Gamma Exposure Rate Measurement Locations at SLAPS and Vicinity Properties 2-9 3-1 Surface Soil Samplin9 Locations for Radioloqical Characterization of Property l on Latty Avenue 3-6 3-2 Subsurface Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Property l on Latty Avenue 3-7 3-3 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at Property l on Latty Avenue 3-8 3-4 Surface Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Property 2 on Latty Avenue 3-9 3-5 Subsurface Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Property 2 on Latty Avenue 3-10

xi

LIST OF FIGURES {continued)
Fiqure Title Page
3-6 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at Property 2 on Latty Avenue 3-11
3-7 Surface Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Property 3 on Latty Avenue 3-12
3-8 Subsurface Soil Samplinq Locations tor Radiological Characterization of Property 3 on Latty Avenue 3-13
3-9 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at Property 3 on Latty Avenue 3-14
3-10 Surface Soil Sampling Locations for Radioloqical Characterization ot Property 4 on Latty Avenue 3-15
3-11 Subsurface Soil Samplinq Locations for Radiological Characterization of Property 4 on Latty Avenue 3-16
3-12 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at Property 4 on Latty Avenue 3-17
3-13 Surface Soil Sampling Locations for Radioloqical Characterization of Property 5 on Latty Avenue 3-18
3-14 Subsurface Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization ot Property s on Latty Avenue 3-19
3-lS Areas and Depths or Radioactive Contamination at Property s on Latty Avenue 3-20
3-16 Surface Soil Sampling Locations for Radioloqical Characterization of Property 6 on Seeger Industrial Drive 3-21
3-17 Subsurface Soil Sampling Locations !or Radiological Characterization of Property 6 on Seeger Industrial Drive 3-22
C-1 Surface Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of the Norfolk and Western Railroad Property Adjacent to 9200 Latty Avenue 4-7
4-2 Subsurface Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of the Norfolk and Western Railroad Property Adjacent to 9200 Latty Avenue 4-8
4-3 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at the Norfolk and Western Railroad Property Adjacent to 9200 Latty Avenue 4-9
xii

LIST OF FIGURES (continued)
Fiqure Title Paqe
4-4 Surface Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of the Norfolk and Western Railroad Property Adjacent to Hanley Road 4-10
4-5 Subsurface Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization or the Norfolk and Western Railroad Property Adjacent to Hanley Road 4-11
4-6 Surface Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of the Norfolk and Western Railroad Property South of SLAPS 4-12
4-7 Subsurface Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of the Norfolk and Western Railroad Property South of SLAPS 4-14
4-8 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at the Norfolk and Western Railroad Property South of SLAPS 4-16
4-9 Surface Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of the Norfolk and Western Railroad Property Adjacent to Coldwater Creek 4-18
4-10 Subsurface Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of the Norfolk and Western Railroad Property Adjacent to Coldwater Creek 4-19
4-11 Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of the Norfolk and Western Railroad Property Adjacent to Hazelwood Avenue and South of Latty Avenue 4-20
4-12 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at the Norfolk and Western Railroad Property Adjacent to Hazelwood Avenue and South of Latty Avenue 4-21
4-13 Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of the Norrolk and Western Railroad Property Adjacent to Hazelwood Avenue and North or Latty Avenue 4-22
4-14 Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization or the Norrolk and Western Railroad Property Adjacent to Eva Avenue 4-23
4-15 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at the Norfolk and Western Railroad Property Adjacent to Eva Avenue 4-24
5-1 Surface Soil Sampling Locations for RadiologicalCharacterization of Latty Avenue 5-31
xiii

LIST OF FIGURES (continued)
Fiqure Title Paqe
S-2 Subsurface Soil Samplinq Locations !or Radiological Characterization of Latty Avenue 5-33
S-3 Areas and Depths or Radioactive Contamination at Latty Avenue 5-35
S-4 Composite surface Soil Samplinq Locations for Radiological Characterization of McDonnell Boulevard 5-37
5-5 Surface Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of McDonnell Boulevard 5-39
5-6 Subsurface Soil Samplinq Locations for Radioloqical Characterization of McDonnell Boulevard 5-41
S-7 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at McDonnell Boulevard 5-43
S-8 Composite Surface Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Hazelwood Avenue 5-45
S-9 Surface Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Hazelwood Avenue 5-47
S-10 Subsurface Soil Sampling Locations !or Radiological Characterization of Hazelwood Avenue 5-49
S-11 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at Hazelwood Avenue 5-51
S-12 Composite Sur!ace Soil Sampling Locations !or Radiological Characterization of Pershall Road 5-53
S-13 Surface Soil Sampling Locations for Radioloqical Characterization of Pershall Road 5-55
5-14 Subsurface Soil Sampling Locations for Radioloqical Characterization of Pershall Road 5-58
5-15 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at Pershall Road 5-60
S-16 Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 2 5-62
5-17 Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads VicinityProperty 3 5-63
xiv

LIST OF FIGURES (continued)
Figure Title Page
5-18 Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization o! Haul Roads Vicinity Property 4 5-64
5-19 Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 5 5-65
5-20 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at Haul Roads Vicinity Property 5 5-66
5-21 Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 6 5-67
5-22 Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 7 5-68
5-23 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at Haul Roads Vicinity Property 7 5-69
5-24 Soil Sampling Locations !or Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 8 5-70
5-25 Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 9 5-71
5-26 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at Haul Roads Vicinity Property 9 5-72
5-27 Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 10 5-73
5-28 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at Haul Roads Vicinity Property 10 S-74
5-29 Soil Sampling Locations Cor Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 11 5-75
5-30 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at Haul Roads Vicinity Property 11 5-76
5-31 Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 12 5-77

xv

LIST OF FIGURES (continued)
Figure Title Page
S-32 Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 13 5-78
5-33 Soil Samplinq Locations !or RadiologicalCharacterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 14 5-79
S-34 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at Haul Roads Vicinity Property 14 5-80
S-35 Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 14A 5-81
S-36 Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 15 5-83
S-37 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at Haul Roads Vicinity Property 15 5-84
5-38 Soil Samplinq Locations for Radioloqical Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 16 5-85
5-39 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at Haul Roads Vicinity Property 16 5-86
5-40 Soil Sampling Locations !or Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 17 5-87
S-41 Soil Samplinq Locations for Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 19 5-88
S-42 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at Haul Roads Vicinity Property 19 5-89
5-43 Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 20 5-90
5-44 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at Haul Roads Vicinity Property 20 5-91
5-45 Soil Sampling Locations for RadiologicalCharacterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 20A 5-92

xvi

LIST OF FIGURES (continued)
Figure Title Page
5-46 Soil Samplinq Locations for Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 21 5-93
5-47 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at Haul Roads Vicinity Property 21 5-94
5-48 Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 22 5-95
5-49 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at Haul Roads Vicinity Property 22 5-96
5-50 Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization or Haul Roads Vicinity Property 23 5-97
5-51 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at Haul Roads Vicinity Property 23 5-98
5-52 Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 24 5-99
5-53 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at Haul Roads Vicinity Property 24 5-100
5-54 Soil Samplinq Locations for Radioloqical Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 25 5-101
5-55 Soil Sampling Locations for RadiologicalCharacterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 26 5-102
5-56 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at Haul Roads Vicinity Property 26 S-103
5-57 Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 27 5-104
5-58 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at Haul Roads Vicinity Property 27 S-105
5-59 Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 28 5-106

xvii

LIST OF FIGURES (continued)

Figure 5-60
5-61
5-62 5-63 5-64
5-65 5-66 5-67
5-68 5-69 5-70
5-71 5-72
5-73

Title
Soil Samplinq Locations for Radioloqical
Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity
Property 29
Soil Samplinq Locations !or Radiological
Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity
Property 30
Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at Haul Roads Vicinity Property 30
Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological
Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity
Property 31
Soil Samplinq Locations for Radioloqical
Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity
Property 31A
Soil Samplinq Locations for Radioloqical
Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity
Property 32
Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at Haul Roads Vicinity Property 32
Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 33
Areas and Depths o! Radioactive Contamination at Haul Roads Vicinity Property 33
Soil Sampling Locations for Radioloqical Characterization o! Haul Roads Vicinity Property 34
Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at Haul Roads Vicinity Property 34
surface Soil Sampling Locations for 1988 Radioloqical Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 35
Subsurface Soil Sampling Locations for 1988 Radioloqical Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 35
Soil Samplinq Locations for 1989 Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 35
5-107
5-108 5-109 5-110
5-111
5-112 5-113 5-114
5-115
5-116 5-117 5-118 5-119 5-120
xviii

LIST OF FIGURES (continued)
[igure Title Page
5-74 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination
at Haul Roads Vicinity Property 35

5-121
5-75 Surface Soil Samplin9 Locations for 1987
Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads
Vicinity Property 37

5-122
5-76 Subsurface Soil Sampling Locations for 1987 Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 37 5-123
5-77 Soil Sampling Locations for 1989 Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 37 5-124
5-78 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at Haul Roads Vicinity Property 37 5-125
5-79 Surface Soil Sampling Locations for 1987 Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 38 5-126
5-80 Subsurface Soil Sampling Locations for 1987 Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 38 5-127
5-81 Soil Sampling Locations for 1989 Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 38 5-128
5-82 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at Haul Roads Vicinity Property 38 5-129
5-83 surface Soil Sampling Locations for 1987 Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 39 5-130
5-84 Subsurface Soil Sampling Locations for 1987 Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 39 5-131
5-85 Soil Sampling Locations ror 1989 Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 39 5-132
5-86 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at
Haul Roads Vicinity Property 39

5-133
5-87 Soil Sampling Locations for RadiologicalCharacterization of Haul Roads VicinityProperty 40 5-134
xix

LIST OF FIGURES (continued)
Figure Title Page
5-88 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at Haul Roads Vicinity Property 40 5-135
5-89 Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads VicinityProperty 41 5-136
5-90 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at Haul Roads Vicinity Property 41 5-137
5-91 Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization or Haul Roads Vicinity Property 42 S-138
5-92 Areas and Depths o! Radioactive Contamination at Haul Roads Vicinity Property 42 5-139
5-93 Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 43 5-140
5-94 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at Haul Roads Vicinity Property 43 5-141
5-95 Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 44 5-142
5-96 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at Haul Roads Vicinity Property 44 5-143
5-97 Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 45 5-144
5-98 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at Haul Roads Vicinity Property 45 S-145
5-99 Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization or Haul Roads Vicinity Property 46 5-146
5-100 Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 47 5-147
5-101 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at Haul Roads Vicinity Property 47 5-148

xx

LIST OF FIGURES (continued)

Figure 5-102
5-103 5-104 5-105 5-106 5-107 5-108 5-109 5-110 5-111 5-112 S-113 5-114
Title
Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 48
Areas and Depths o! Radioactive Contamination at Haul Roads Vicinity Property 48
Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 48A
Soil Samplinq Locations for Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 49
Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 50
Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property Sl
Soil sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 52
Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 53
Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at Haul Roads Vicinity Property 53
Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads VicinityProperty 54
Soil Samplinq Locations for Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property SS
Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 56
Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 57
5-149 5-150 5-151 5-152 5-153 5-154 5-155 5-156 5-157 5-158 5-159 5-160 5-161
xxi

LIST OF FIGURES (continued)

Figure
5-115
5-116
5-117
5-118
5-119
5-120
5-121
5-122
6-1
6-2
6-3
6-4
6-5
6-6
Title
Soil Samplinq Locations for Radioloqical
Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity
Property 58
Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at
Haul Roads Vicinity Property 58
Soil Samplinq Locations for Radioloqical
Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity
Property 59
Soil Samplinq Locations for Radioloqical Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 60
Soil Samplinq Locations for Radioloqical Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 61
Soil Samplinq Locations for Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 62
Soil Sampling Locations for Radioloqical Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 63
Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Haul Roads Vicinity Property 63A
surface Sediment Samplinq Locations for 1986 Radioloqical Characterization of Coldwater Creek
Soil Sampling Locations for 1987 Radiological Characterization of Coldwater Creek
Soil Sampling Locations Cor Radioloqical Characterization of 1.5 Miles of Coldwater creek North of Pershall Road
Soil Samplinq Locations for Radiological Characterization of Property l on Coldwater Creek
Soil Sampling Locations for Radioloqical Characterization of Property 2 on Coldwater Creek
Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at Property 2 on Coldwater Creek
5-162 5-163
5-164
5-165
5-166
5-167
5-168
5-169 6-9 6-11
6-13 6-15 6-16 6-17
xxii

LIST OF FIGURES (continued)
Figure Title

6-7 Soil Sampling Locations !or Radiological Characterization of Property 3 on Coldwater Creek 6-18
6-8 Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Property 4 on Coldwater Creek 6-19
6-9 Soil Sampling Location for RadiologicalCharacterization o! Property 5 on Coldwater Creek 6-20
6-10 Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Property 6 on Coldwater Creek 6-21
6-ll Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Property 7 on Coldwater Creek 6-22
6-12 Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Property 8 on Coldwater Creek 6-23
6-13 Soil Sampling Location for Radiological Characterization of Property 9 on Coldwater Creek 6-24
6-14 Soil Sampling Location for Radiological Characterization of Property 10 on Coldwater Creek 6-25
7-l Sur(ace Soil Sampling Locations !or Radiological Characterization of Banshee Road 7-6
7-2 Subsurface Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of Banshee Road 7-8
7-3 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at Banshee Road 7-10
7-4 surface Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of the Ditches to the North and South of SLAPS 7-12
7-5 Subsurface Soil Sampling Locations !or Radiological Characterization of the Ditches to the North and South of SLAPS 7-14
7-6 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at the Ditches to the North and South of SLAPS 7-16
7-7 surface Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of the St. Louis Airport Authority Property 7-18
7-8 Subsurface Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of the St. Louis Airport Authority Property 7-20
xxiii

7-9 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at the St. Louis Airport Authority Property 7-22
7-10 Surface Soil Sampling Locations tor Radiological Characterization of the Ball Field Area 7-24
7-11 Subsurface Soil Sampling Locations for Radiological Characterization of the Ball Field Area 7-25
7-12 Areas and Depths of Radioactive Contamination at the Ball Field Area 7-26
xxiv

LIST OF TABLES

Table Title

1-1 Tax Map Reference List !or Latty Avenue Vicinity Properties 1-5
1-2 Tax Map Reference List !or Haul Roads VicinityProperties 1-10
1-3 Tax Map Reference List for Coldwater Creek VicinityProperties 1-14
2-1 Summary or Residual Contamination Guidelines (or FUSRAP Properties in the St. Louis, Missouri, Area 2-13
2-2 Backqcound Radionuclide Concentrations in Soil and Radiation Levels in the St. Louis Area 2-15
NOTE: TABLES 3-1 THROUGH 5-7 ARE CONTAINED IN VOLUME II OF THIS REPORT. TABLES 5-8 THROUGH 7-8 ARE CONTAINED IN VOLUME III.
xxv

AEC BNI CJ!!RCLA
DOE FUSRAP
HISS MED NRC NEPA ORAU ORNL PIC PMC SLAPS SLDS TMA/E TMC TSCL
ACRONYMS

Atomic Enerqy Commission Bechtel National, Inc. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act
U.S. Department of Enerqy Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Pr:oqr:am Hazelwood Interim Storaqe Site Manhattan Enqineer District Nuclear Regulatory Commission National Environmental Policy Act Oak Ridge Associated Universities Oak Ridge National Laboratory pressurized ionization chamber project management contractor St. Louis Airport Site St. Louis Downtown Site Thermo Analytical/Eberline Technical Measurements Center temporary slope and construction line
xxvi

cm
2
cm cpm ft
h
ha
in.
km m
m2
3
m
mi mrem mrem/yr mR/h µR/h pCi/q
yd) yr
ABBREVIATIONS
centimeter square centimeter counts per minute foot hour hectares inch kilometer meter square meter cubic meter mile mi11irem millirem per year milliroentgens per hour microroentgens per hour picocuries per qram cubic yard year
xxvii

1.0 INTRODUCTION

The characterization activities reported in this document were
conducted as part o! the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action
Proqram (FUSRAP), a U.S. Department o! Enerqy (DOE) e!!ort to
identity and clean up or otherwise control sites where residual
radioactive contamination (exceeding current quidelines) remains
from the early years of the nation’s atomic enerqy proqram or from commercial operations causing conditions that Conqress has mandated DOE to remedy. Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) acts as the project management contractor (PMC), responsible to DOE Cor planninq, managin9. and implementing PUSRAP. Surveys were conducted from 1986 through 1989 at DOE’s direction by BNI and its radioloqical subcontractor. Thermo Analytical/Eberline CTMA/E).
1.1 PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES
This report describes the procedures used to conduct the 1986
through 1989 radiological characterization o! FUSRAP properties in
the St. Louis. Missouri. area (see Fiqure 1-1). These properties
include
o Latty Avenue vicinity properties

o Portions ot Coldwater Creek and its vicinity properties

o Nor!olk and Western Railroad properties

o St. Louis Airport Site (SLAPS) vicinity properties

o Portions of Latty Avenue. McDonnell Boulevard, Hazelwood Avenue, and Pershall Road (the haul roads) and associated vicinity properties

The St. Louis sites have been placed on the National Priorities List. which is a list of sites identi!ied !or remediation under the Comprehensive Environmental Response. Compensation. and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, also referred to as Super!und.
1-1

The objective of these characterization activities is to define the
horizontal and vertical boundaries of radioactive contamination
exceedinq DOE quidelines. The data collected rrom the radioloqical
surveys discussed in this report will be incorporated into the
remedial investigation and Ceasibility study reports for the St.
Louis sites.
1.2 LOCATION AND DESCRIPTION
SLAPS is an 8.8-ha (21.7-acre) tract located in St. Louis County, Missouri. approximately 24 km (15 mi) from downtown St. Louis and immediately north o( the Lambert-St. Louis International Airport. SLAPS is bounded by the Norfolk and Western Railroad and Banshee Road on the south, Coldwater Creek on the west, and McDonnell Boulevard and adjacent recreational fields on the north and east. Fiqure 1-2 shows the location of SLAPS and the Latty Avenue properties. The Latty Avenue properties [Hazelwood Interim Storage Site (HISS) on the eastern half and the Futura Coatinqs property on the western half] are located at 9200 Latty Avenue. These properties cover a 4.S-ha (11-acre) tract located in the city limits of Hazelwood and are approximately 3.2 km (2 mi) northeast of the control tower of the Lambert-St. Louis International Airport.
Each Latty Avenue vicinity property characterized as part or the radioloqical survey was assiqned a numerical identifier that corresponds to a St. Louis County tax map locator number. Table 1-1 references the assigned identifier to its respective tax map locator number. The Latty Avenue vicinity properties lie within the cities or Hazelwood and Berkeley and are shown in Figure 1-3.
The haul roads, believed to have been used durinq waste transfer among the St. Louis properties, include Latty Avenue, McDonnell Boulevard, Hazelwood Avenue, Pershall Road, Eva Avenue, and Frost Avenue. Characterization results from the right-of-way of these roads are reported with tho•• ot the appropriate associated vicinity properties. These routes traverse Hazelwood, Berkeley, and St. Louis and are located near HISS and SLAPS as shown in Fiqure 1-4.
1-3

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NOTTO SCALE
FIGURE 1-2 LOCATIONS OF THE LATIY AVENUE PROPERTIES AND SLAPS

TABLE 1-1

TAX MAP REFERENCE LIST FOR
LATTY AVENUE VICINITY PROPERTIES

Reference Number Tax Map Locator Number
Property 1 Property 2 Property 3 Property 4 Property S Property 6
lOKS30098 lOKS10012 lOKS20022 lOKS20044 lOKS20033 10KS10067
1-S

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FIGURE 1-3 LOCATIONS OF THE LATTY AVENUE VICINfTY PROPERTIES
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In addition to these haul roads, several adjacent properties were included as part of the radioloqical characterization (see Fiqure 1-5). Each haul road vicinity property characterized as part of the radiological survey was assigned a numerical identi!ier that corresponds to a St. Louis County tax map locator number. Table 1-2 references the assigned identifier to its respective tax map locator number.
SLAPS was acquired by the Atomic Enerqy Commission (AEC) in 1947.
From that time until approximately 1966, the site was used to store
waste materials !rom the uranium teed materials plant at the St.
Louis Downtown Site (SLDS). Radioactive contamination o( the SLAPS
vicinity properties may be the result or movement of contaminated
soils from SLAPS via surrace runoff or transfer by vehicles. In
1973, ownership of SLAPS was transferred by quitclaim deed from AEC
to the City o! St. Louis. The 1985 Enerqy and Water Development Appropriations Act (Public Law 98-360) authorized DOE to reacquire
the property from the city !or use as a permanent disposal site. Actions to trans(er ownership of the property to DOE have been
initiated.
The SLAPS vicinity properties include Banshee Road, the area south of Banshee Road owned by the St. Louis Airport Authority, the
recreational areas to the north of SLAPS known as the ball field area, and the ditches to the north and south or SLAPS. Fiqure 1-6 shows the locations or the SLAPS vicinity properties.
Coldwater Creek, a tributary of the Missouri River, has an overall length of 30.6 km (19 mi). The creek, which originates about 5.8 km
(3.6 mi) south or SLAPS at a amall spring-fed lake, !lows !or a distance of 152 m (500 !t) along the west side of SLAPS and discharges into the Missouri River about 22.5 km (14 mi) northeast of the site. Beneath the airport, Coldwater Creek !lows in an underqround drainage passage. The location or Coldwater Creek is shown in Fiqure 1-1.
1-8

TABLE 1-2

TAX MAP REFERENCE HAUL ROADS VICINITY LIST FOR PROPERTIES
Page l o( Reference 2 Number Tax Map Locator Number

Property Property Property Property Property Property Property Property Property Property Property Property Property Property Property
Property
Property
Property
Property
Property
Property
Property
Property
Property
Property
Property
Property
Property
Property
Property
Property
Property
Property
Property
Property
Property
Property
Property

1
2
3
4
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 14A
15
16
17
18
19
20
20A
21 22 23
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 31A 32 33 34 35
lOL220893 10L240093 10L520098 10L240082 10L330095 10L330040 10L330031 10L330022 10L330073 10L340023 10L340014 10L340032 10L310011 llK510035 State or Missouri McDonnell Boulevard Right-or-Way 11K520056 10K2l0064 10K210053 lOK230051 10K23003l lOK230040 lOK230031 lOK230073 10K240106 10K240094 10K330140 10K22015l 10K220140 10K330030 10K330063 10K330074 10K330085 10K310111 10K330131 10K330173 10K330113 10K330122 10K610080
1-10

TABLE 1-2

(continued)
Page 2 ot 2
Reference Number Tax Map Locator Number
Property 37 Property 38 Property 39 Property 40 Property 41 Property 42 Property 43 Property 44 Property 45 Property 46 Property 47 Property 48 Property 48A Property 49 Property 50 Property 51 Property 52 Property 53 Property 54 Property 55 Property 56 Property 57 Property 58 Property 59 Property 60 Property 61 Property 62 Property 63 Property 63A
lOK520066 10K540097 10K630303 09K220l40 lOK540031 09K220041 10K540075 09K220030 09K220052 09K220074 09K220085 09K220184 09K220173 09K310153 09K310164 09K310175 09K322187 09K220162 09K220106 09K210053 09K210064 09Kl40026 09Kl40015 09Kll0304 09Kl30027 09Kl30016 09Kl30038 10K430020 State of Missouri Pershall Road Right-of-Way
1-11

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TABLE 1-3

TAX MAP REFERENCE LIST FOR
COLDWATER CREEK VICINITY PROPERTIES

Reference Number Tax Map Locator Number
Property l 09Kl2009S Property 2 09Kl20149 Property 3 09Kl20040 Property 4 09Kl20127 Property 5 09Kl20116 Property 6 10K440030 Property 7 10K440096 Property 8 10K440074 Property 9 10K420010 Property 10 10Kl40024
1-13

Each vicinity property associated with Coldwater Creek was assigned a numerical identifier that corresponds to a St. Louis County tax map locator number. Table 1-3 references the assigned identifier to its respective tax map locator number. Figure 1-7 shows the vicinity properties associated with Coldwater Creek.
1.3 HISTORY AND PREVIOUS RAPIOLOGICAL SURVEYS
In 1966, ore residues and uranium-and radium-bearinq process wastes stored at SLAPS were purchased by the Continental Mining and Milling Company or Chicago, Illinois, and placed in storaqe at 9200 Latty Avenue. These wastes were generated by a St. Louis plant (currently owned by Mallinckrodt, Inc.) between 1942 and the late 1950s under contracts with AEC and its predecessor, the Manhattan Engineer District (MED). Some of the residues were dried in two buildings on site before being shipped to a Colorado mill. The rest were removed from 9200 Latty Avenue (currently HISS) in 1973, to terminate a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license !or storage, and the property was later sold to the current owner. At this time, barium sulfate residues were reportedly diluted with site soil and transported to West Lake Landfill in St. Louis County.
The residues stored at 9200 Latty Avenue were deposited directly on
the ground. When the last residues were removed !rom the grounu surface, a reported 30-to 46-cm (12-to 18-in.) layer of topsoil also was removed before the property was sold. It appears that parts of the property are contaminated in excess or current guidelines as a result o! mechanical earth-moving activities and water percolation (Refs. 1-1 and 1-2). The primary contaminant is
thorium-230. Much or the uranium and radium in the ore had been removed during earlier processing. It is possible that McDonnell Boulevard was the haul road used for the transport or barium sulfate residues. Pershall Road and Hazelwood Avenue also were possible haul roads during the transport o! residues among the St. Louis sites. The soils alonq the shoulders of Latty Avenue also were surveyed and found to be contaminated, possibly as a result or residues spilling from the transport trucks.
1-14


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1.3.l Latty Avenue Vicinity Properties
In 1981, Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) performed a
radiological survey of the northern and eastern boundaries of HISS
!or NRC (Refs. 1-3 and 1-4). Levels or contamination, principally
thorium-230, similar to those levels on the site were round in both
areas.
In September 1983, DOE directed Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to perform a preliminary survey or properties adjacent to and in the vicinity of HISS at 9200 Latty Avenue to determine if radioactive contamination in excess o! quidelines was present. The potentially contaminated areas identified during that preliminary evaluation were then more thoroughly surveyed by ORNL during January and February 1984. Results of the survey established that radioactive contamination was present over most or the HISS vicinity properties, extending north and south in some areas onto adjacent private properties along Latty Avenue (Refs. 1-5 and 1-6). ORNL discovered that redistribution or the contamination had occurred, probably as a result of flooding, surface runoff, and road and utility line activities. The major contaminant found was thorium-230: radium-226 and uranium-238 were present in lesser amounts.
Based on the ORNL characterization, DOE directed BNI to perform
remedial action in 1984 on the contaminated areas within the
temporary slope and construction line (TSCL) along Latty Avenue
(Re!. 1-7). The TSCL included all areas that could have been disturbed during a drainage improvement project being carried out by the cities of Hazelwood and Berkeley. During the remedial action, contamination exceeding quidelines was found to extend beyond the TSCL.
In 1986, DOE directed BNI to provide radiological support to the cities during their road improvement project. During this coverage, radium-226 and thorium-230 contamination in excess of DOE remedial action guidelines was !ound at depths ranging Crom 0.6 to 2.4 m (2 to 8 ft) along and under Latty Avenue. Based on gamma count rates,
1-16

materials contaminated in excess or remedial action quidelines were
removed and placed in storage at HISS. Approximately 4,206 m 3
(4,600 yd3 ) of material was placed in a storaqe pile developed
speci!ically to accommodate these materials and covered with a
low-permeability membrane. In addition to qamma scanninq the soil
that was not placed in storaqe at HISS, qross alpha countinq was
used as a screeninq technique. Usinq qross alpha counting, soil
samples were scanned ror alpha-emittinq radionuclides, such as
thorium-230, in excess of DOE remedial action quidelines. Soils
that did not exhibit contamination in excess of DOE remedial action
quidelines were used as fill material on the railroad property
located between the Futura Coatinqs site and Coldwater Creek and
alonq the entire lenqth of Latty Avenue.
Radiological characterization of the Latty Avenue vicinity
properties was necessary to de(ine the locations and boundaries of
the contamination identified in the ORNL survey and to evaluate disposal alternatives.
1.3.2 Coldwater Creek and Vicinity Properties
In 1982, DOE directed BNI to perform a radioloqical characterization or the ditches to the north of SLAPS and portions of Coldwater Creek
(Ref. 1-8). Results or this survey indicated that gamma-emitting contamination exceeding remedial action quidelines was present. This survey did not include measuring thorium-230 concentrations in soils. Subsequent analysis of additional radionuclides showed the presence of thorium-230 in above-quideline concentrations: therefore, all later field work conducted in the St. Louis area involved analyzinq for thorium-230. Characterization efforts continued in 1986 at the SLAPS ditches and involved analyzinq archived soil samples Crom the 1982 survey for thorium-230. The results of these analyses indicated the need to collect soil samples beyond the area surveyed in 1982 (on the ball field) to adequately determine the extent of contamination. Results for the ball field characterization are reported in Section 7.0 o! this report.
1-17

Additionally, sediment samples were collected in 1986 from the sides
and center of Coldwater Creek beginninq at SLAPS and continuing
downstream to HISS. The data from these samples indicated spotty
contamination along the entire distance.
l.3.3 Norfolk and Western Railroad Properties and SLAPS Vicinity Properties
A radioloqical and limited chemical characterization was conducted at SLAPS in 1986 by BNI. Results or this survey showed contamination present on SLAPS extending to depths as great as 5.5 m (18 ft) (Re! 1-9). The Nor!olk and Western Railroad property Corms the southern boundary of SLAPS. The radioloqical characterization of the SLAPS vicinity properties, Banshee Road, and the railroad property was necessary to define the maqnituue and boundaries or the contamination and evaluate disposal alternatives. No formal radioloqical characterization had been performed on these properties until that or 1986-1989.
1.3.4 Haul Roads
In 1985, DOE directed ORNL to perform a radioloqical survey or the roads thought to have been used to transport contaminated material to and from SLAPS and HISS (Ref. 1-10). Results of the ORNL gamma radiation walkover scan of the roadsides showed areas where gamma exposure rates are in excess of background radiation levels. Gamma exposure rates up to 90 µR/h were round on the surface of McDonnell Boulevard. Soil sample analysis results !rom the 1985 survey showed thorium-230 to be the major contaminant. As a result or this survey, parts of Hazelwood Avenue, Pershall Road, and McDonnell Boulevard were designated !or remedial action in 1986.
1-18

REFERENCES FOR SECTION 1.0
1-1 Bechtel National, Inc. Characterization Report for the Hazelwood Interim Storage Site, Hazelwood, Missouri, DOE/OR/20722-141, Oak Ridqe, Tenn., June 1987.
1-2 Bechtel National, Inc. Radiological Characterization Report !or the Futura Coatings Site, Hazelwood, Missouri, DOE/OR/20722-158, Oak Ridqe, Tenn., July 1987.
1-3 Oak Ridge Associated Universities. Preliminary Radiological Survey ot Proposed Street Right-of-Way at Futura Coatings, Inc., 9200 Latty Avenue. Hazelwood, Missouri, Oak Ridge, Tenn., December 1981.
1-4 Oak Ridge Associated Universities. Concentrations of Radionuclides in Soil Samples from Property at 9150 Latty Avenue, Hazelwood, Missouri, Oak Ridge, Tenn.• April 28, 1982.
1-5 Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Radiological Survey of Latty Avenue in the Vicinity of the Former Cotter Site, Hazelwood/ Berkeley, Missouri CLMOQl), ORNL/TM-10006, Oak Ridge, Tenn., May 1987.
1-6 Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Radiological Survey o! Properties in the Vicinity of the Former Cotter Site, Hazelwood/Berkeley, Misaouri CLM003), ORNL/TM-10008, Oak Tenn., May 1987. Ridge,
1-7 Bechtel National, Inc. Hazelwood Site -1984, September 1985. Post-Remedial Action Report for the DOE/OR/20722-76, Oak Ridge, Tenn.,
1-8 Bechtel National, Inc. Radiological Survey of the St, Louis Airport Site CSLAPS), Oak Ridge, 1983. the Ditches at Tenn., August

1-19

1-9 Bechtel National, Inc. Radiological and Limited Chemical Characterization Report for the St. Louis Airport Site, St. Louis, Missouri, DOE/OR/20722-163, Oak Ridqe, Tenn., Auqust 1987.
1-10 Oak Ridqe National Laboratory. Results of the Radiation Measurements Taken at Transportation Routes CLM004} in Hazelwood, Missouri. ORNL/RASA-86/31, Oak Ridqe, Tenn., December 1986.
1-20

2.0 STUDY AREA INVESTIGATION

The radiological characterization surveys conducted at the FUSRAP
properties in St. Louis consisted of the following steps:
establishing a reproducible qrid system, clearing the area to be
surveyed as appropriate, performing qamma radiation walkover scans
and near-surface qamma radiation measurements where applicable, and
collecting and analyzinq surface and subsurface soil samples. The
types of radioloqical measurements taken and the methods used are
described in Subsections 2.2 and 2.3.
2.1 GRID SYSTEM
A civil surveyor established a 15-m (50-ft) qrid on the vicinity properties adjacent to Latty Avenue by marking the intersections o! a series or perpendicular lines, as shown in Figure 2-1. [Fiqure 2-1 is marked at 61-m (200-ft) intervals because of the size o! the drawinq.] The grid oriqin used during the remedial action conducted in 1984 along the Latty Avenue riqht-of-way was reestablished.
A 15-m (50-ft) qrid was also established over the haul roads anu adjacent properties, extending approximately 46-m (150 ft) from the
roadways (see Figure 2-2). [Figure 2-2 is marked at 305-m
(1,000-ft) intervals because of the size of the drawing.] A 15-m
(SO-ft) grid was established over the SLAPS vicinity properties as shown in Figure 2-3. [Figure 2-3 is marked at 61-m (200-ft) intervals because of the size o! the drawing.] The grid origin was the southwest corner of SLAPS. These grids were tied to the SLAPS qrid system and to the Missouri state grid system with sufficient detail to allow for reestablishment at a later date. When characterization work was initially performed at 9200 Latty Avenue and SLAPS, each site was treated independently and a qrid was established at each. At that time, it was not suspected that contamination would be as extensive as it is in the area and that the two sites would be essentially continuous. This accounts for having di!!erent grid systems !or the two sites.
2-1

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Minimal clearing was done along Coldwater Creek so that a traverse line could be established with right angle offsets at 152-m (SOO-ft) intervals (Figure 2-4). The traverse line was referenced back to the SLAPS qrid. Samplinq locations were determined by measuring along the offset lines. All chatacterization data correspond to coordinates on the qrids. All qtids shown in the !iqures in this document are displayed in measutement units or !eet.
2.2 RADIOLOGICAL SURVEYS
The characterization sutvey con•isted of two majot components:
surface surveys and subsurCace investigations. Surface surveys were performed Cirst to provide information about the patterns o! contamination and to assist in the identification of areas in which
subsurface contamination could be present. The subsurface
investigations were performed subsequently to establish the depths
of contamination in areas that the surface surveys identified as
being contaminated. An additional purpose or the subsurface
investigations was to locate any subsurface contamination that
lacked surface manifestation.
2.2.1 Methods
Two types of surface survey methods were used: walkover surveys anu
near-surface gamma radiation surveys. Initial gamma radiation walkover scans were performed within grid blocks on the vicinity
properties adjacent to Latty Avenue and SLAPS usinq an unshielded gamma scintillation detector. A gamma radiation walkover scan was done on accessible areas or Coldwater Creek’s banks and any associated ptoperties. Ateas in which readings exceeded twice the gamma radiation background level were marked on a site drawing. This type or survey cover& virtually all the ground surface and has the advantage that it can be conducted quickly: however, the boundaries ot the areas identified as being contaminated may not be precisely correct because of the e!!ect of nearby contamination on detector readings.
2-S

1Hr 120.0CH

Near-surface qamma radiation aeasurements were made 30 cm (12 in.) above the qround surface at 3.8-a (12.5-ft) intervals in the areas identiCied as contaminated on the basis of the 9amma radiation walkover scan. This survey was performed to deCine aore clearly the boundaries of contamination identi!ieu by the earlier walkover survey. The same kind or detector that was used durin9 the walkover survey, a 5-cm by 5-cm (2-in. by 2-in.) sodium-iodide, thallium-activated [Nal(Tl)) detector, was used durinq this survey. The detector was mounted in a probe assembly surrounded with a conical lead shield to reduce the qamma intensity throuqh the sides, thus producinq a downward directional response. The detector was calibrated at the Technical Measurements Center (TMC) in Grano Junction, Colorado.
It should be pointed out that neither the walkover nor the
near-surface gamma radiation survey is effective for detecting the presence of thorium-230. Thorium-230 is an alpha-emitting radionuclide that cannot be detected in situ.
Gamma exposure rates at l m (3 ft) above the qround were measured on the NorColk and Western Railroad property adjacent to HISS anu on the SLAPS vicinity properties to the north and south of SLAPS using a pressurized ionization chamber (PIC). The PIC has a response to gamma radiation that is proportional to exposure in roentgens. Readings were made at 37 selected qrid points on the Norfolk anu Western Railroad property adjacent to HISS (see Figure 2-5) and at 69 locations at SLAPS and vicinity properties (see Fiqure 2-6). This exposure rate information will be valuable for use in remedial action planning, environmental aonitoring, and the preparation of documentation required by CERCLA/National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) activities.
Subsurface investigations were conducted by drilling and/or hanu.augering boles at most 30.5-m (100-ft) grid intersections. The depth to which each borehole was drilled was based on guidance Crom
2-7

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the geoloqist on site and the radiological support representative.
The hand-augered holes were typically 1 to 1.3 m (3 to 4 ft) deep.
Although gamma loqginq is typically used to determine the depth or
subsurface contamination, thorium-230 (the principal contaminant)
cannot be detected in situ: therefore, continuous soil samples were
collected !tom the sur!ace to the bottom o! the hole by driving a
split ‘ spoon sampler in advance of the auger. Deviations !tom this
methodology required by !ield conditions are described in each
section of this report.
Downhole gamma logging was performed in each characterization hole
to indicate the general depth or contamination !rom gamma-emitting
radionuclides. Gamma logging was accomplished by lowering an
unshielded Nal(Tl) detector into the hole and recording the count
rate as a function or depth. Downhole gamma logging data were used
for the selection and analysis or soil samples to determine the
concentrations of uranium, radium, and thorium.
2.2.2 Sample Collection and Analysis
Biased surface soil samples [Oto 15 cm (0 to 6 in.)] were collected
based on results from the qamma radiation walkover scans. Each sample was counted for 10 minutes using an intrinsic germanium detector housed in a lead counting cave lined with cadmium and
copper. The pulse height distribution was sorted using a computer-based multichannel analyzer. Radionuclide concentrations were determined by comparing the gamma spectrum of each sample with the spectrum o! a certified counting standard for the radionuclide of interest.
Subsurface soil samples were collected from the borehole and hand augered hole locations. Wherever possible, continuous sampling was performed from the surface to in-situ (not previously disturbed) soil, as identified by the field geologist.
2-10

Following sample collection, the downhole gamma loqs were revieweu,
and samples were selected for analysis or uranium-238, radium-226,
and thorium-232 concentrations. Samples were typically chosen !or
analysis at 0.3-m (1-!t) intervals. These analyses were performed
using the gamma spectroscopy system described previously.
At the same time that samples were selected !or the analysis program described above, samples were also identified for thorium-230 analysis. The primary goal of the thorium-230 analysis program was to de~ermine whether above-quideline concentrations o! thorium-230 exist in areas where neither uranium-238, radium-226, nor thorium-232 is present in concentrations exceeding guidelines.
Experience in the St. Louis area bas shown that when the radium-226 concentration is elevated above background levels, it is reasonable to assume that the concentration of thorium-230 exceeds the DOE guideline or lS pCi/g. Based on this rationale, as well as on the downhole gamma logs and available gamma spectroscopy results, samples were selected !or thorium-230 analysis. Typically, this meant that samples were selected from regions of each borehole where gamma logging results showed a decrease in the count rate, indicating a drop in the radium-226 concentration.
To expedite the sampling and analysis process, multiple-depth samples were selected from each borehole for initial analysis. Selection or these samples was based on an evaluation or gamma
logs. By using this selection method, the boundaries of contamination could be established in a single phase of analysis. As analytical data became available, other samples also were selected to resolve inconsistencies or to provide additional
information on specific regions. It should be noted that the sampling locations depicted in figures in this document represent locations !rom which soil samples were analyzed. In some instances, soil samples may have been collected Crom a property but analysis was not necessary.
2-11

2.3 CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS
The results of the characterization effort for each qroup of FUSRAP properties in the St. Louis area are described in the !ollowinq sections. To permit comparison o! the results with current DOE quidelines for radionuclide& in aoil, these quidelines are presented in Table 2-1 (see Ref. 2-1). Actual cleanup limits will be determined in the remedial investiqation/!easibility study-environmental impact study process. A quideline Cor uranium in soil at these properties ia currently beinq established.
All direct field measurements and laboratory results in this report represent gross readings: backqround measurements and concentrations have not been subtracted. All downhole gamma loqging measurements reported in this document have been rounded to the nearest thousand
cpm.
Analysis results !or soil are provided in Sections 3.0 throuqh 7.0. The “less than• (<) notation in reportinq results indicates that the radionuclide was not present in concentrations that are quantifiable with the instruments and techniques used. The "less than• value represents the lower limit o! the quantitative capacity o! the instrument and technique used. Thererore, the actual concentration o! the radionuclide is less than the value preceded by the "less than• symbol. Determination of a "less than• value is based on various factors, including the volume, size, and weiqht or the sample: the type of detector used: the counting time: and the background count rate. In addition, because radioactive decay is a random process, a correlation between the rate of disinteqration and a qiven radionuclide concentration cannot be precisely established. For this reason, the exact concentration of the radionuclide cannot be determined. As such, each value that can be quantitatively determined bas an associated uncertainty term Ci2 siqma), which represents the amount by which the actual concentration can be 2-12 TABLI 2-1 SUMMARY OF ll!SII>UAL COllTAKIVATIOI CUIDELIVES
FOR FUSRAP PROPERTIES I• THE ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI, AREA

BASIC DOSE LIMITS
The basic limit for the annual radiation dose received by an individual member of the general public is 100 mram/yr effective dose equivalent above background.
SOIL (LAJJD) GUIDILil’E
Radionuclide Soil Concentration (pCi/g) Above Background•,b,c
Radium-226 5 pCi/g, averaged over the first 15 ca of •oil
Radium-228 balov the surface; 15 pCi/g when averaged over
Thorium-230 any 15-cm-thick •oil layer below the surface
Thorium-232 layer.
Other radionuclide& Soil guidelines will be calculated on a
•ite-specific basis using the DOE manual developed
for thb u•e.

8 These guidelines take into account ingrowth of radium-226 from thorium-230 and of radium-228 from thorium-232, and assume secular equilibrium. If either thorium-230 and radium-226 or thorium-232 and radium-228 are both present, not in •ecular equilibrium, the guidelines apply to the higher concentration. If other mixtures of radionuclides occur, the concentrations of individual radionuclides •hall be reduced •o that the dose for the mixtures will not exceed the basic dose limit or th• 8Ull of the ratios of the soil concentrations of each radionuclide to the allowable limit for that radionuclide will not exceed 1 (unity).
~ese guidelines represent residual concentrations above background averaged across 15-cm-thick layers as described above and over any contiguous 100-cm2
•urface area.
Ctocalized concentrations in axe••• of th••• limits are allowable p