1971-07-22 – AEC – Cotter Corporation – Radioactive Waste Disposal Documents

1971-07-22-aec-cotter-corporation-radioactive-waste-disposal-documents

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UNITED STATES
ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION
WASHINGTc:>N, D.C. 20545
() . rt/
JUL 2 2 1971
Ulys_ses l>f. Stae1Jler, OCN
COTTER ·CORPORATION — RADIOACTIVE HASTE DISP.OSAT. PROPOS/I~
On June 27, 1971, Hessrs. :HcGrath and Marcott of the Cotter Corporati.on
met 1·1ith members of our regulatory staff to discuss possible on-site
burial of radioactive ~-1astes at their Hazeh1ood,·Hissouri, site. At
that time it 1•1as explained that before ~.Ye lvO\tlcl be able to determine
whether, and under ,.1hat conditions, such burial could be authorized
w·e would need a complete description of:
1. The radioactive ~-7astcs involved (including principal radioisotopes
and activHies).
2. The ~roposed method o£ burial.
3. The burial site, including geographic, hydrologic, and geochemical
parameters which might affect miRration of the radioactive material
from the site.
It w·as also pointed out that Cotter Corporation might be required to
provide for perpetual maintenance of such a burial site and submit an
environmental statement in accordance tdth the National Environmental
Policy Act if it appeared that this on-site burial could significantly
affect the quality of the human environment.
Since the June 29, 1971, letter from Hr. l.fcGrath indicates that Cotter
Corporation is preparing to submit more detailed information on their
proposal, you may H:f.sh to include in your reply to this letter the
enclosed. documents, entitled “Licensing Requiiem~nt for Establishment
of a Land Burial Facility for Burial of Radioactive \rlastes” and
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Ulysses H. Staebler 2
“Guidelines for Decont ami nation of Facilities and Equipment Prior
to Release for Unrestr i cted Use or Termination of Li censes for
Byproduct , Source, or Special Nucl ear HAter.ial.”
Enclosures :
1. Li censing •••
2 . Guide •• •
f))l#—-. C. L. Henderson
Assistant Director of Regulation
for Administration
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!JQ!t:!§.!NG REOUIRE!jKNTS FOB.,.ESJ’f.,’3~lSHMENT OF A
LAND BURIAL FAG ILITY FOR BURIAL OF RADIOACit’lE \VASIF.S.
The land on which facilities for burial of radioactive wastes will
be located must be owned by the Federal Government or a State
Government. Section 20. 302 ~ 10 CFR 20, “Standards for Pro tee tioh
Against Rsdia tion 11 , provides that the Commission \11111 not approve
an application for a license to dispose of waste material by
burial in the ground o.n land not owned by the Federal Government
or a State Government.
. .
An application for a license should inc ~ude the fo llol-lihg. infor•
mation: · · :.
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1. Total amount of byproduct material in curies,· source
material in pounds, and special nuclear material in
grams v1hich wil.l be possessed at any one timeo
2. The qualifications of the applicant and members of his
staff to ·engage in the proposed ac tivities9 including .
specialized training and experience in handling r~dioactiva
materials and dealing with radiation problemso ·
;3.:. A description of the radiation detection instrume·nts which
wi 11 be available, inc.luding the manufacturers 1 model numbers,
the sensitivity and range of the instrumen’ts., and the f:raquency
and method of calibrationo . ·
4. The r.~diation protection procedures including emergency
pro~edureft for each phase of ~he proposed programo
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5. A description of the .facilities that will be used·.for
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storage including: .. ···
A. ‘Address
B. ·Nature of su~roundin~ area (i<>e., residential,· .i~dustrial) ·
. · …
c’; ‘Size ··of.· surrounding .. -~r~a con trolled by .. the, applicant
·n. ··sketch sho,-1ing loc·ation of building,’ portion of building
~·to be used for proposed licensed operations, identity and
locat~~n of other occupants (if any), and distances to
nearest other occupants and to nearest. ad joining occupants o ..•
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All licensees are required to comply with the Commission.’ s radia ti’on
protection regulations, Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations~ Pat’t 20,
“Standards for Protection Against Radiation11 o This regulation estathishes
radiation exposure standards and precautionary proqedur~s _ ~hich must be
follo~1ad in handling licensed materiaL. Standard>,6p~raJ;ipg proqedures
should be based .. on fulfilling the requirements of. ~his:·regulationo . . ~ ·. :· ~ … :: . ~
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\-lith respect to the site and land in which wastes will be buried,
the applicant must include an analysis and evaluation of certain
information as to the nature of the enviroment including topograph””
ica 1, geographic a 1, me terorologica 1 and hydro logic a 1 charac ter:i.s·tics,
usage of ground and su.rfaco waters in the general area, and the n·at:ure
and location of other potentially affected .facilities. More specifi~
cally~ the following hydrological and geological information should be
·sumitted as pertinent and appropriate to the site under consideration:
1. Geologic .Framework
\
·A. Maps sho~oling surface and subsurface distribution of p·ertinent
rocks and sediments and their relations to topographic, hydroQ
graphic, and cultural features at the site and in the surround~
ing areas that might be affected by activities at the site.
B. Subsurface geologic data on pertinent rocks and seaiments at
the site and in the surrounding areas that might be affected
by activity at the site.
1. Logs of wells on and near the site, including descriptive
lithologic logs and geophysical logs of wells or test ho l es
at the site4
“., 2 . Correlation diagrams and vertical cross .sections that sho”\v
the lithology and continuity of pertinent subsurfac~ forma=
tions and their relations to surface t-opography and geology,
hydrology, and cultural features4 /
C. Data on geologic structures such as folds, faults, and joints.
lL Hydro logy /
Ao Surface water
1. Description of all pertinent surface~water features such as
lakes and ponds and drainage netv1orks of intermittent and
perennial streams, both at· the site and in the surrounding
areas that might be affec t ed by activities at th~ siteo
2. Uses of surface water on and adjacent to the site, including
quan.tity used in relation to maximum and minimum stream flows.
,; ·’ 3. Chemical quality of sur~~ce \·later.
4. Relation of surface water to gr ound ‘ivater, particularl)i in
context of areas of surface=tva ter infiltration and ground”‘·
water discharge that might affect the movement of radioactive
materials on or away from the site.
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B. Ground water
1. Description of the occurrence and chemical quality
of ground water in relation to the geologic frame~.~
-..·1ork ..
a . Generalized regional picture of occurrence ,
altitudes of ‘”ater table, and piezometric surface,
documented by adequate data from inventories of
\vells in areas adjacent to the site.
b •. Detailed “descri ption of pertinent-aquifers at
at the site documented by adequate dated f rom
hydrologic te s tingo
2. Movements of ground water
a. Areas and mechanisms of recharge, both -regional
and at the site o
b. Directions of movemen~both regional and at the
site ..
c . _Areas and mechanisms of discharge, both regional
and at the s i. te o
d.
/ Rates of movement as calculated from acqu_ifer
coefficients determined by pumping tests at the
s i te and by ,.1hatever addit ional data are available
on a regional basis o
e. Fluctuations of -.,qater leve ls and other hydrologic ..1 parameters as the result of natural seasonal or
climatic fluctuations, or as the result of man’s
ac t ivities such as pumpage from wellso
:,3. Use of ground -..vater at the .site and in adjacent areas,
documented by inventories of -..vells.
a.
b. Type of use.
c . Pumping rates and schedul es.
d. Projected future water use.
III. Geochemistry .. ~on exchange characteristics of soil in
\vhich burial trenches ‘vould be excav ated .
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IV. Monitoring
A., Plans for monitoring soils and v7ater in the context
of the total ~valuation of geology_ a~d_ t1y<;1rol9gy., ~ ~ B., Plans, if any, for monitoring ~vater offsite·; for instance9 periodic sampling of exi~tini wate~ w~iis nearby and down the ground="Y7ater gradient from the site-. The transportation of radioactive material in interstate commerce by rail· or ·public highway is· governed by Department of 'l'ransC>
portation regulations., A~ so~ similar regulat~ons . have been . ·. _ ..
adopted by the U” So Coast Guard for transportation by ~.jater” .
When these regulations are not applicable 9 such as in ~nt~astate
·transportation, AEC \vaste disposal licensees must conqu~t ·_their
transportation in accordance with a license ~ondition which
establishes requirements and contains specifications similar
to those of the Department of Transportationo
It is the policy of the AEC to publish a notice of proposed
issuance of a license permitting the conduct of a commercial
radioactive waste disposal service in. the Federal Register
·after the application has been revie\-led and the AEC
· fin.ds that the applic?nt can conduct the proposed programsafely
in compliance with current regulations and req~ire~
ments,. The notice specifies that a formal hearing ~.;rith
respect t o the is suance of the license may be requested
by the applicant of an intervener within fifteen (15) days
after the publication of the notice, pursuant to the .pro=·
cedures contained in the Commission’s . “Rules of Practice”t
Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 2o If a formal
hearing is not requested ‘o}ithin the specified period, and in·
·the absence of such public interest as -to warrant the Commis~
sion calling a hearing on its o’·m motion~ the license is
issue do
Section ·2.,101, Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations 9 Part-‘2,:

1Rules of Practicetc, requires that a copy of ·an application
for a license to receive waste material from other persons
for the purpose of disposal shall be served by the applicant
on the chief executive of the municipality in \>1hich the ·
activity is to be conducted, or if the activity is not to
be conducted within a municipality, then on the chief
executive of the countyo
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GUIDELINEs· I•~OR DECONT1’J.1IHATION OF FACIT~ITIES Al.JD. EQUIPC-1F.N’l1
PRIOR TO RELEASE I<'OR UNRESTRICTED USE OR TEP.MINATION OF LICENSES FOR BYPRODUCT, SOURCF., OR SPECJAL NUCLEAR !ljA'J.'EHIAL U. s. Atomic Energy Commission Division of Materials Licensing · . Hashingto~, D. C. 2054-5 APRIL 22, 1970 · ,· 0. ~. .. ., ). ·, .· ... # __ . .. 4J.'he instntctions in this guide :in conjunction Hith Tablec I and II spec.i. fy the raclioacti v':i ty and rudia ti on expos u ce rate l im:i ts ,_.hich chould" be tt:>ed in accomplh;hi ng t h-: deconte.mination and survey of
s urfaces of prcmiGes and equipme.nt prior to a.bandonroeht or relea~e
for unrentr).cted use. The l ili’li ts in ‘l’ables I and II do not apply
to premises , equipment, or scrap containing induced r adioactivity
fo-r 1-1hich 1:-hE: racUo1ogical conside:rations pertinent to their use·
may he d.i fferent. ‘.l’he release of such facilities or items from ·
regulatory control Hill be considered on a case-by-case basis .
1. The licensee shall make e. r easonable effort to eliminate
. retiidu3l. contamins.tion.
2. Radioacti.vi ty on equipment or surfaces shall not be covered
by paint, platinB, or other covering mat eri al unless contumination
J.eve.ls, as detemtined by a survey and documented:
··are belo,·t t he limits spccifieq. i n Tables I or ·II prior to
applying the covering. A r easonable effort must be made to
minimize the contamination p.r.ior to use of any covel.·ing.
3. The. r adioactivity on· the interj.or surfaces of pipes, drain
lines, or duchrork shall be determined by making measurements
at aD. trapi’;; anc1 oth~r a.pp~;·..opri ~.te access pcir!te; provided.
that contamination at these l ocations is .-likely to be representative
of contaminatton on t he interio~ of t he pipes, drain
lines, or ductr,.rork . Surfaces of premises ; equipment, or Gcrap
vrhich a:ce likely to be contaminated but are of such size,
conot’ruction, or location D.s to make the surf’ace inaccessible
.. for purposes of measurement shall be presumed to be contandna.ted
in excess of the liut.i. ts.
.. . .. …
l~. Upon request) the Commission ro.ay authorize a licensee_ to relinquish
possession or control o:f:’ premises, equipment, or scrap having
surfaces conta!crim{ted \-lith ·ma.teriaJ.s in excetis of the l inli ts
specif i ed. ~li s may include, but would not be l imited to) special
circums tances such as raz ine of buildings, transfer of premise:>
to anot her organization conttnuing ‘vork \lith radioactive materials,
or conversion of facilities to a. long-term s~orage or standby
status. Such requests must:
a. Provide detailed, specific information describing the premises,
equipment or scrap, radioac tive c;ontamtna.ntsJ and the nature,
extent) nncl degl.’ee of residual surface contominati o~j(_H~~ /\ \tCH(V;?.’<' b. Provide a detailed healt h and saf ety analys i s \-lhich _reflects that the residual amounts of matcriel.s en· surface areas, together vTitb other considerations such as prosp_ective use of the premises, equi.pment or scrap, are Wllikcly to result · in an tmreasonable risk· to the health and safety of-the public . - 2 5~ ·Prior to release of premises for unrestricted use, the licensee shall make a comprehensive radiat:~,_in survey whi.ch establishes that contamination is -vri.thin the limits specified in Tables I or II. A copy of' the survey report shall be filed \vith the DirectorJ Division of · .,_. MatcTi.a.ls Licensing: US.Al!:c/;..;.'~·.~-shington, D. C. 2051~5, and also the . · ·<"YH1'ector of the Regional.'Di·.vision of Compliance Office having - ·jurisdiction. The report should be filed at least 30 days prior to the planned date of abandor~ent. The survey r~port shall: a. Identif.y the prcnuses. b. Sholf that reasonable effort has been made to eliminate residual contamination. c. Describe the scq~e of.the survey and general procedures followed. d. State the ~indings of the survey in units specified in the instruction. t) rr. ~' ~·~~ /\J~J .. ; .~:.t .t. \' tr~~~:·~ li'ollo-:rh-232, and . 5,000 2 dp~ ojlOO em .1,000 dpm a./100 ct:l.
associat ed decay products – i ‘M.a.ximt!to I 25,000 G.pm JlOO 2
: em
Other isotopes ‘tvhich decay 1,000 d:pm o/100
2
em 100 dpm a./100 em 2 ·Average ( 6) 2 by alpha eoission or by : 500 dpt’l o/100 em 100 .. dpm r:x/100
spontaneous fission ::” I Maximu:o
dp:n · ·wloo· f_m2– .. ., .;.~. 2,500
I · ~ … ;. ;.,: ., :;I cm(5) 2 Av~rage (6) Beta- ga.mma emitters (iso- ,., . 0 . 4 mrad/hr at 1 . 1,000 dpm ry/100 em . (5) 2 topes “tdth decay modes :•··· 0. 2 tlr ad /h.: ~·t lcm 1,000 dpm ~-y/100 ,:~ ‘
other tha:1 alpha e:c.issi on .~. .·. – . Ha:ximum or spontaneous fission) r … ~ 1 .0 mrad/hr a t cm(S) ,
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(1) E i~her Table I or ‘table II may be used . For e…-ca:cple, if all beta-gamma r eadings were less than 0.4 mrad/hr a t 1 em,
Tab~e I could be used; but if the maximum reading were 0.8 mrad/hr, mat e=ial could be released under Table II provid~
ng·the average was less· than 0 .2 mrad/hr.
(2) t~er e surface contamination by both alpha and beta- gamma emitting .isotopes exists, the limits established for alpha
and beta-ga.n:.ma emitting isotopes shall epply independently.
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Mr. Edwar d J. Mc Gra t h .. : I
260 East Jefferson Street
Rockville , Naryland 20850
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Dear Mr. Mc Gr a t h :
t . • •••••• ·:· . …. .. •’ ””;l!<::~ ~. ~ .. ··~· ·····:·~·.! .- , .... ·· ··· ·-~ .... -. . : ' ! •' •': ,: • ••• ~· . ... ~ • ••• , '·:--· ... .... ... ~! Thank you f o r y.o ~ r l e t t er of June 29, 197.1. I beli eve you are now in d irect cont a c t wi th the proper organizations· within the Atomic Energy Commi ssion to provi de an~:n,,crs t o your. ques t ions rela t ed to d ispos a l of r adioac t ive wa s te ma t e r ial s own ed by the Cot t e r Corpo~ation . The question of burics.l of the materi 20850.
June 29, 1971
The Honorable ~fj,lfrid E. Johnson
. U.S. Atomic Energy Comm1ss’ion
Washington, D.C. 20545
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Re·: Cotter Corp_Q}:”ation- Radioactive vlastc Disposal Prooosal
Dear Commissj.oner Johnson:
..;
I Pursuant to .your suggestion made during ou.r’ conference
on Ju~e 24, 1971, I am enclos1.ng copies of the corresponde:t..ce
between Cotter Corporation and the Co~~ is sion relati ng to the
disposal of radioactive waste materials owned by the corporation,
‘·rhich are novr located :i.n Haze1wood, Mj.ssouri. · ·
I am also enclosing copies of a preliminary propo~al for
on site burial prepared for Cotter Corporation by the engineering
firm~· of Ryckman, Edgerl cy, Tomlinson and Associates., In c.~
together \ Missouri. W~ will
furnj.sh you with copies of further submissions. and correspondence.·
· · On behalf of Mr. Marcott> Cotter d~rporat ion, and myself,
I wish to thank you for providing us with an opportunity to
discuss with you the problems and public p6licy i ssues which
surround our efforts to dispose of the waste materials safely
and quick4.y.
EJM/dl
G cr.c1~~ l ;.~n! le.;::~r·
United 8~~~eA ~to~ic
Ener£;s· Co;.~r.1 1::;s1~o n
\’!~sh~.n r.:t on D. C. ~05115
Re: CottcP Corpornt1on
\·Taste Dtsposal Projcot
Dea14j !·it’ . ~·~c1J.. “J.:~.~l~:~rr;.fo:rth: ,
;
:~:~~~r.yJ. u.no~1. tho facts ?..nd c~L:t•ct~l:!~ tances herc1nD.f’tcl”‘ set· fol”‘th.
Co~i;0.J.’ Co-rporat-ion hereby m.::tlwa a~)pJ.lc::tt.ton fo:.., a u.tho_rity to dis-.
po:30 or rad:1.oac t:,. ve. \’111~ te ~:;.~ t0.r>io:l at ·’l.on, :tn 1967, purchaned frnm e. pr>lv~te concern
a substnnt1Ql ~uant1ty of ~adiouctlve residues storod .et that time
at. the so cal:tot”l · “n h 1 port rd. te11 in St . Louis, ~·fifHlOUl’l for the pttr~
.-.!J on. ;L,’~. of~'”-‘ ‘-“‘”r_’:”;l”.J’..”._’ “‘0C”””””<''' s .4.1. r'tcr:,.:, t'n,;~:,V~- P•O ""~' ti.J.O. ".',~.. of 1l's.h r~.; tn..:.G :\.'t.·'r".'->‘)•-•’ “1.,,~..1_ ·~·•’1’1 ‘..1…. — “l1′ \•lL•\n.. .n..” 1 (r’…;.rJ otn;; .n’-
abJ.e to t:-.•catment in tho urcm1um n~tll or Cottc!’ Cor>porn’.;ion locutea
in Canon City~ Colo~ado .
‘i’he l”‘en1.dues pnrc:1a0e:1 ucrc ·the P!’Oduct of ~~.rlier Commission
on:·:<:--6.t ions, ~n~ rc pre~en-Gcc1 u. vubstant1al problem ~ t the t.ime \·rhcn th~y \'iCre P.cqn:lrcd by co~~tcr Co:•pm?nt:lon) hcca.use t:he f:J.rm \•lhich pu.rchascd them f'x'CP:1 the Commiss·icn Emd fi>om uhich Cot~t er Corpo:;”)nt:.
1.on ecq,,t:lr>s::H.1 thor: ~~::1 (1 ~one oo speculatively, . .,._:ithout ;:. progr e.n(1 t’uboequ.cntlv tcrm~umted its business -act:l v-
-.iti0t.
!nc1n·:.1et!.tion has
tr c:·.~l3 0Q:,”‘t0d ancl proccnned ~11 of’ the ”!<1. s te r:tate~r:i.eJ. · . \'7h5.ch Has a!~U~1~i.!ble to treatr.:en·;; and made arrano~mGnts for- disp.o"oiti~n of ~ lar>ge quant:t ty of unu~abl e loose r.taterial. ·uon .6 \J.C UJ.VJi:.;J
Thor.e re:::!:lil1S for c:1Cfl03ition ~PPl;O:dr:w.tcly one thoustmd
(1~000) drurn3 f’11lensh, that ~.~ 5.tems snch
as brj.cks > clot ‘I i. n’:”·, ho0tg l gloves. ~r~d t~~(~ 11 i;·:’. ‘.::’he c:!’UQ!S nr•0
Q \~~,~·o P.!; 1._~, 1. :· -~ :\ ~ ;• ;~ r\ ~ H~H:~ l wood_, ~-!:! n n:)’.1t’ 1 •
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Cottc:r’ Corporat. ion J if’ au. thor lzed by th~ Commission to do 80 I
‘·Till t ranspor\: tho. dru:ns .bY truck from HLH~ehYoocl; H:l.noouri to the
qun~ry· o1te at Weldon Spring (a dis\:ance of approximateiy thirt~
(30) m:lleo) o.n(1 dcpon:Vc thm:1 in the quo.l’ry, subject to Couunlsaion
nimD.ar contaminated material; that no conflict
e;dG~~::l :!n this Gituat1o.n \·t:l:’~h the Com.lni.ssion policy against engag:
tnb ~:…;: op·~l’at:ions competitive wj.th p1.~:1.vaJ~ e .tnctustry, s1.ncc exletint:;
p:..•ivatcly oper-ated Haste · dispos~.l fac5.lities ape not clee:l;.gned
in capacity or othcrwine for disposition 6f material in the ~an- ·
t :tty and for·m invol vcd in thie !’>:L tuntion; th:.J.t tho <:lintanco to· t:he ncarGnt comr:l0j."'cJ.uJ. disposal nite, even 1·1cre i.t capable of handlinE; th0 materi~l is t·,·~o hundre(l ( 200) mil e ~ .as opposed to e. cU.st2.nce ·of thii.'t;'l (30) ni.l"Cs fi,om Ha~eh10od to Holdon Spr:tnG, ane othc.riunds or depressions. ·
It is the desire of Cotter Corporatioi1 to reutrn to its Lessor· la~d \•thich
\·till in no vmy he limited in its usefulness or va1ue and \·Jill in no way
endanger the sm-rounding environment and its inhabitants.
1″} {) L~~ t\ .r~~. (· ~· 1.·. r ·~ \f D):.~i
RETA-780
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Co lorado
Raffinate
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l . , … ~f t\ ” f t l < ili'······' ) e., .f ' " ' I ~ ' , · · . ·coTTER CORPORATION LATTY AVENLIF. STORI\GF. ·SITE \t!J\ZLE~·IOOu, t4ISSOURI · '-' UNITED ST/,T.ES ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION VIASIIINGTON, D.C. 205<1S !·lr. Ed·,Jard .T. NcCrath 260 East Jefferson Street RnckviJ.J.e, ~laryl.'ll.H'I 20fl50 D~ar Mr. McGrath: MAY 2 4 1971 JQJECJEKVED MAY 231971 _·E. J. l\1cGRATH ' This is in r esponse to your l etter of April 28, 1971, proposing to di~pose of cer t ain r adioactive ·Hastes mmed by the Cotter Corporation in an AEC-oHncd quarry at Helclon Spring, Hi ssouri. Your letter sta tes, in_.part; t hn … ”
This s l:atemcnt rai ses some questions on t..rh i ch ”-‘e ~vould apprec:i.a te
ftlt’thcr in~ormation . First, Hhat :i.s the intent of t he phraGe
” or othcn·ris c=’? ~ · Does it mean that the licensed burial ground
operators couJ.d not handle the material ~dthin the safety require-
. ments of their present licenses? Second, i s t he judgment cxpress~d
in this· statement tha t of the Cotter COl.·poration or that of the
licens ed burial ~t”ound o perators? Nore spe cifica lly, h~.v e the three
l i cens ed burial ground ~~crate rs (Nuclear Engineeringj Nu clear Fu~l
Services , nnd Chem-Nucl<:'\.:lr Services) s tated that they could not handle the material? fve twuld apprecia te your vieHs on these points in order to consider the proposal further . 1)0E Sincerely, i~oq~~:~ Divi sion of Haste and Scrap Hanagement ....... ... .... . ~. \ .. . · .. 'l y;. • .... • • l••t. . ~ . . . . .. · ,_~::. ~:.:...~;...:_ .... .:....~~· .. .:.~ ...,.;..,_, .... -: ...... ~~. .... __ _,,,· , . - ·.. ~- -·. ·. ....... . _.. ..... ,; ... ·- ..... ., . ·. o _ ..,., _.., ' •••. : ' .. : ... ,:· ,.r : .-· , ,_o - ~·, ,.•:~_, , 11 ,':.:..,.,-u...-;._.;.'i - .• .-~.,_.,..: ... ,, .,.,·.~&. •~ :_· • ~•a • • •• •-· 0. . -· I I UNITED STATES ATOM !C ENERGY COMM lSSION WASHINGTON, D.C. 20S4S June 2S, 1971 HENORi\NDU£.1 FOR THE r'J.LES SUBJECT: NEE'f!NG \HTH RBPRESEN'l'Ni'IVES OF COTTER CORPORATION At the request of Senator Peter Dominick (Colorado) , · Commission e~ Johnson me t t.o~ith David Harcott, Executive Vice President, ~nd Edward McGrath, Washington Counsel, . fo r Cotter Corporation on June 24, 1971. Others attending were Dr. Martin Biles and u. M. StaebJ.er. 14essrs. Narcott and HcGrath had previously met \'lith personnel from the Divis ion of Haterials Licensing and l'fast.e and Scrap ~1anageme_nt . Cotter Corporation acquired r adioactive r e~idues from early 1\EC milling operations \•lhich had been moved from the St.· Louis Airport to Hazcl\,•ood 1 a site in metropolitan St. Louis, by a Ba ltimore Corporation Hhich Hent bankrupt. The material \·/as acquired from Commercial Di scount 1 the fin.~ncer. of the ori,gj.n~J. _ p,urc.l·~~.s.e. from the AE.C . Selected materials were sent to a plan t at Canyon City for recovery of valuable ~ine ra ls. Cotter has about 15,000 tons of materials to be disposed of in addition to about a thbus~nd drums of contaminated materials which can be disposed of. comme rcially at a reasonable cost. They are COillffiitted to restore the property on \·;hich the material is stored but have found that disposal on-sit~ is not acceptabl~ under present··:r;egulations. The $150, 000 they had ·a llow<::d for on-site disposal is to be compared \vi th an estimate of $2 million they have received from Nuclear Engineering for commercial disposal at a site about 200 miles a\vay. Mr. -Marcott \•Tould like to dispose of t tie material at the quarry formerly used by the AEC near the St. Louis operat~ons ~1hich is about -30 miles from · the Hazelwood site. Dr.' Biles revie\'/Cd the situation at the quarry , .concluding that disposal there would not be accept~ble. The ' basis for the estimate of $2 million for disposal · by Nuclear Engineering was not known but it did not seem consistent: l,vith -the usual charge or aboLtt. $0 . 7o .per cu. ft. for conuuercial disposal plus transportation. (Separate information indicates this estimat~ may incl ude decontamination of buildings at the site.) Dr. Biles suggested that· transporting the materi·al to Colorado 1.. { , v ,, r· r >; n ~~ ~-~~:~·-~
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a nd adding it to e ~ is ti ng piles of tailings there might
be wor t h exploring since t he mate~ia l i s s imila r and
w~uld be quite small in quantity relative t o these pi l es.
It was agreed that:
a) Both Cotter and AEC (Biles ) would look into
the feasibility of di ~po sa l on other tailings
piles (~ncluding lice ns i ng) . ·
b) Cotter \>IOuld provide a brea’kdO\•Tn of the $2
million estimate from Nuc l ear Engineering .
c)
d)
AEC (Biles) would investiga ~e the basis being
used f9r private conune r c i a l disposal —
in particular whether pricing on a unit volume
basis ·,·las reasonabl e for t his kind of material.
Cotter \·lou l d pr ovi de a summary o f t he history
of t he materia l a nd t he contract obl .:Lga t,?.ons
r e l a t ive t o ul timate disposal associated \·1ith
the va ~ i o u s trans fers .
. “2f, )r] .• ~{;–:;-:<.t 1:~/;,./ U. M. Staebler , · cc: General· Nanager ......... ... .... ---.-" ... ·- Dr. Martin Biles, OS . ~. O'Neill, Cong. Rel. H. NoHak, \vSM C. H~nderson, DR .. · \ \ • ····- "· .... . •.· .• ·. r' •• - - · ; ,\_ •.. /'.· Reference is made to the June 28, ·1971 , fi 1 e memorandum from U ~ M. S taeb 1 er, concerning a meeting with Cotter Corporatjon representatives to discuss the disposal of their residues located in the St. Louis· area. The Cotter Corporation apparently proposed disposing of their residues in the Weldon Spring quarry. We can understand some reluctance to place these materials in the quarry, since the ground \'Jatet' situation in that area is not fully d.efined and "control" could, therefore, be questioned. Two points seem w·orthy of mention in this regard. · First, the dumping of the Cotter residues in either the quarry or the pits at ~leldon, Spring would represent an -exception to the radioa~tive waste burial policy as reflected 1n AEC 180/23. The possibility of establishing a troublesome. precedent should therefore ·be recognized. Second, - the negotiated sales . a9reement with Cotter stated the intent of the agreement to be the relllOVal of all residues, and specific effort \'las made to prevent a "creaming" of the material. Remova 1 from the Hazelwood site was therefore a recognized responsibility .of Cotter•s. --~-------------~~-~ ~ ._ ___ . , _ _ ...... ..... ..;.;..-._., __ ••.. .• ,\,' -i If Headquarters determinest however, that disposing of the Cotter residues_ at Weldon Spring should be approved, we believe that there is a much more acceptable alternative in the Weldon Spring area other than the quarry. The AEC-controlled raffina'te pits at the Weldon Spring site are excellently contained and isolated from the -environment. The Cotter residues are quite similar to what is a1r·eady contained in the pits and represent perhaps a · 10% addition to what is already there. There is .already about.,~ ~illiOB cubic feet of material in the pits, and the Cotter residues woul.:i 1 I ‘·!C t:i n:r 31
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Martin B. Biles – 2 – July 14, 1971
be dumped directly into Pit 4, than to transport them across country. AEC
could conceivably negotiate a charge to Cotter for disposal in the pits,
based either upon current commercial rates, or upon our cost of 11directing11
the operation at our end, plus some crudely estimated cost for later
stabilizing the residues. .
We would be pleased to assist further in this matter if requested. As you
are a\’/are, the Genera 1 Manager would have to approve acceptance of offs i te
radioactive wastes at an AEC facility.
OS:JAL
cc: J. A. Erle\’line, AGMO, HQ
F. P. Baranowski, P, HQ
H. A. NOI’Iak, Wm, HQ
‘~s. R. Sapirie
Manager
Oak Ridge Operations
… , ·.:·· \::
UNITED STATES
ATOMIC ENERGY COiv1M lSS!ON
WASHINGTON. o.c. ~O!:i45
Mr.· Edward J. McGrath
260.East Jefferson Stree t
Rockville1 · Maryland 20850
Dear ~JX. McGrath:
.July 22 1 1971
: . .. …. – . – — – .
~hank _ ybu for your lett~~ of June 29, 1971. I believe
you a.re nmv in dir ect contact with the proper organi ?.a·tions
Hithl n the Atomic Energy Commission t o provid~ ans\’lers to
your questions re ~ at e d t o ~isposal o f radioactive waste
mate rials Ot.vned by ·the Cotter Corporati on.
The question of· burial of the material at th e . Haz ~ lwood,
M-issouri·, -site or any other prope rty .c on.troll.cd by Cotter
Corporation should be pursued _,..;ith ·the Divis ion of ~at e ri al s
tic~ nsi ng. Any. questions you may have r e gar ding -burial of
these materials on AEC s ite s s hould be addressed to t he
Divisi011 of Waste and Scrap Manag~en t.
Should there be any f u rther que st.ions, these t\·m Divisions
will either be abl e to answer them or will ens ure that other
appropriate Divisions· \v.i,ll ans~vet~ them f or you.
Sincerely,
(;
w:¥~7′ Comm1.ssioner ·
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..~. ·:. ~ :~.:. I .. , 1,:·: (. “” • .:.) f ‘:< .-. .. ~ I. • ~ ... ..... ........ UNITED STATES ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION MEMORANDUI-1 'FOR THE WASHINGTON. D.C. 20545 June 28,·7 FILES ---~· SUBJECT: ' MEETING WITH REPRESENTATIVES OF COTTER CORPORATION At the request of Senator Peter Domi nick (Colorado) , Commissioner Johnson met with David Marcott, Executive Vice President, and Edv1ard McGrath, Washington Couns ~ l, for Cotter Corporation on Ju'ne 24, 1971 . Others . attending \vere Dr . Hartin Biles and U. M~ Staebler. Messrs. Narcott and McGrath had previously met with personnel from the Division of Materials Licensing and Waste and Scrap Management. Cotte~ Corporation acquired radioactive residues from early AEC milling operations \vhich had . been moved· from the St. Louis Airport to Hazeh!Ood, a site in metrop9li tan · St. Louis, by a Baltimore Co~poration which · w~nt bankru~t. · The material \'las acquired fr~:>n\ Connnercial Dis.co~nt I the
.financer of t:he original purch.ase f.r.om the AEC. Selected
materials ‘Vlere sent to a plant at Canyon City fo·r -recovery
of valuable minerals. Cotter has about 15,000 tons of
materials to be disposed of in addition to about a thousand
drums of contamirHited materials which · can be disposed of
con~ercially at a reasonable cost. They arc committed
to restore the property on which the material is stored
but have found that disposal on-site is not acce,ptable
under present regulations. · ·rhe $150 , 000 they’ had allowed
for on-sit~ disposal is to be compared with an estimate
of $2 million they have received from Nuclear F.nginoering
for commercial disposal at a site about 200 miles away.
Mr. Marcott t,o;ould like to dispose of the material at the
quarry formerly used by the ·AEC near the St. Louis.
operations \•lhich is about -30 miles from the Hazelwood
site. Dr. Biles reviewed the situati on ~t . thc_quarry 1
concluding that disposal there would not be ~c·ceptable.
The basis for the estimate of $2 million for di spo~al
by Nuclear:: Engineering \’las not knovm but it did not
seem consistet?-t \ • … ” :~ • ·1.~. ‘\, \
; .
”2J, ) 71, .467-X-t.evv
U, M. St aebler·
· 6c: Ge ne~al Manager
Dr . Martin Bil e s , OS
R. O’Neill , Cong. Rel .
H • Nowak , Y.1SM
C. H~nders on, DR
H. Ililc~
E .. ·l60
f<. Fatllkne:r P-1120 . il. ROWi!X G-117 C. Ue.t\tku:aon J~..ttn~ R. Cunninqharo OS:lS 58.94 7/14 respon.s~ .. LAW OFFICES EDWARD J. McGRATH 280 EAST J EF"FE:RSON STREET RocKVILLE, Z.!;. RYt.AND 20850 130 11 4:> ~- 470 7
June 29, 197f
I
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The Honorable Wilfri d E. Johnson
U.S . Atomic Energy Conunission
Washington, D.C. 20545
Re·: Cotter Corporation- Radioactive vlaste Disposal Propo’sal
Dear Commissioner Johnson :
Pursuant to your suggestion made during our conference
on June 24, 1971 , I am enclosing coptes of· the correspondence
between Cotter Corporation and the Commission relating to the
disposal of radioactive vraste materials ovmed by the corporation,
v1hich are nm’l locat~d in HazehTOod, Missouri. ·
I am also enclosing copies of a preliminary proposal for
on site burial prepared for Cotter Corporation by. the engineering
firmoof Ryckman, Edgerley, Tomlinson and Asso~iates, Inc., ·
together 1’li th a copy of a memorandum by .Mr, · l•larren Goff, Safety
Engineer for Cotter Corporation, reporting -on the conference
betvreen representa~ives of Cotter Corporation and Nuclear
Engineering Company, during which the latter firm gave an
estimate of $2,000,000.00 for burial Of the \’Taste material at
the site owned by that firm in Illinois .
As Mr. ~1arcott advised, ‘I’Te are preparing to submit more
detailed lnformation to the Commission on the proposal for
burial at the present site i n HazehTOod, Missouri. \tfe will
furnish you with ·copies of further submissions and correspondence.
On behalf of Mr. Marcott, Cotter Corporation , and myself,
I wish to thank you for providing us with an opportunity to
discuss with you the problems and public policy issues t’lhich
surround our efforts to dispose of the waste mater1als safely
and quickly.
EJM/dkb
Enclosures
;z_::;rz ·-
Edward J. · ~ath Attorney for Cotter Corporation
– •• – . ::. .._. . t •• • . • • ..
LAW O FFICES
EDWARD J. McGRATH
260 I::A5T JEF F ERSON STREET
RocnV!LLE, HAn\’l.AND 2oaso
-·-
( 3 0 11 424-.. 707 –
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~
·. · ·April 2~, 1971
Jt.r. itobert E. Holl:tngm·rorth,
GGncrn l r-1anag0r’
United St aten At omic
Ener~y Commission
. lt.’a sh1ngton D.C. 205IJ5 ·
· : .
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. . .
Cotter- Corporation
Waste Disposal Project
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n~u~0<:1. upon tho facts a.nd c:trcums tnnce6 hereinafter set forth. Cotter Corporation hereby make~ application for author!ty. to d:tspo: 1e o f radloactiv~ 1·1aste matel .. inl de scribed belo\'1 'by depositing th ~ s.~mP. in the abandoned quart•y _ ut1.11zcd f.or eueh dtsposal on the property owned· and controlled by the . Atomic Energy Gommissi.on at ~·feldon Sp~ing~ Ntsaouri. Cotter Gorpor>at.ton, :tn 1967, ·purchased !’r0m a private .e.oncern ·
a substantial quo.nt 1ty of radioactive residues stored ·at · that time
at the ao called “airport site” 1n St. r~ouis, Misaoul’i for the pur- ·
pos e: of’ reproces sin.g that portion of the material wbich ~rns smenaolc
to treatment ‘in the ut”an1um mill· of: Cotter Corporation looatcd
ln Canon City, Colorado. · · .- – ·_ ,. ,·_
. – . . . .
The residues· ·purchased l-lere the product of earlier Commission
oper>a.t1ons, and represented a euhata.ntial problem at the time· when
they Nere acquired by Cotter Corporation; becauee the flrm which
purchneed them from the Commission and f”rom tth1ch Cotter Corpor- ·. –
· o.tion ~cqu1rec1 them had done ao speculatively, ‘<~Ti~hout ·e. program · f~r d1Gpoa1t1on, and subsequently terminated 1ts business act1v- -: it1ea. · ·· · · ' • . ,. ~ Incltt\.le. 1.rhc drums . are . :. _·
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Cotter Corporation, if autho~ized by the Commission to do so,
will transpo~t the drums by truck from Hazelwood, M1saour1 to the
qunrvy site at Noldon Spring (a distance or approximately thirty
{30) miles) and deposit them 1n the quarry, · aubjeot to Commission .
advice and direction, and at the expense of the corporation.
\ve believe deposit in th~ quarr’y’ to be the most sastiaractory
rc3olutiou or all substantial problems· involved in disposition of
the contarn1.nnten material. Among ·the factors \fhich dictate our
conclusion e.re ‘that the quarry site 1a utilized by the Commission
for. (1isposal of ~3 im:tlar contaminated material; -that no ~onflict
e;::tstrJ :ln this nituation ,,,ith the Comm1ae19n policy · aga~nst engag:
tn~ 1.n ope!’at:ions competitive \’lith private industry, since ~xist- ·
inF.; pl’ivately operated. ~oraste disposal ~ac111t1es are not · dee.lgned
in capacity oP other\lliae for disposition of material in -. the ~;\.iantity
and form involved in thia situation; that the distance to the
nearest comme:..–c :to.l disposal site, even \-‘Jere lt capable or handling
the material is two hundred (200) -miles as opposed to a · diatance
or thirty (30) miles from Hazelwood to \’Teldon Spring, and finally.
· the very sttbstantial difference in expense in dinpoaal other . than
at Weldon Spring quarry, even if ·such alternatives were otherwise
feaetb~.e. ·
vic request. the opportunity to present and discuss · thia prQ..:.
posal •tiith you and \’lith those of the Commiss:ton staff.’ . . concerned
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‘I
P R 0 P 0 S A L
for
Df.CONTAMINJ\TION
lATTY AVENUE .STORAGE SITE
Haze 1 \•Jood , · Missouri
AEC License #SUB 1022 (40-8025)
April, 1971
RETA-~80
…….. -.. -·
RYCKMAN· EDGERLEV ·TOMLINSON and ASSOCIATES
‘,·.
noo coR<'NET cu11.0ING • ;:~5 soGrH. M·." n"M. .£c .~~v·e:uu" •sAINT LOUIS. Mlsso.oni 63105. . . . TI:t.Et'HONF.: (314) 06?.-342.~. ·.:. It is the intent of this proposal. to provide a ~ans \·1hereby th~ Latty Avenue Ore Storage Site may be deco.ntaminated and returned for normal -..,.....---------·-- ··--· land. use \·lith no restrictions on future u5e, in full compliance \'tith all ~~- -""""" . ' · ~ applicable rules and regulations of the Atomic Energy Commission • 2 . ·Figure 1 sho\'/s a schematic of the Storage Site \•lith the stockpiled mate· . rial outlined. This Jlk1terial has had·a long and varied history in re1at~on to its ultimate disposal as outline·d in your Commission's Invitation to · .B id No. AT-{23-2)-52, dated January 10, 1964; At that time a partial·.· · ' : ;· . . . listing of the material included: 74,000 tons of Belgian Congo Pitchb1end. · Raffinate containing about 113 tons of uranium, 32,500 tons of Colorado Raffinate containing about 48 tons of (iranium·and 8700 tons of leached Barium Sulfate containing 7 tons of uranium. Material indicated on· the schematic represents those listed above as purchased by Commercial Dis-. cou~t Corporation of Chicago, Illinois [License #S~1C-907 ( 40-7603 )] • · Since August, 1970, Cotter Corporation has be~n drying and shipping the Congo Raffinate to their site of operations in Canyon City, Colorado. (License No. SUB-1022 (40-8035)]. At the present time this operation is heing completed. L0\'1 concentrations of valuable metals and other elements have rendered the remaining material economi.cally unfeasible to process in like rM.nner. For this reason it is proposed to bury the remaining material on site. The landfill \•Jill be constructed in a series of excavations and burials. . . The area previously occupied. by the Congo Raffi nate \·Ji 11 be further exca- . vated, with the original uncontaminated earth stockpiled in a spoils. ar~a; to provide suffici~nt space for burial of the Colorado Raffinate. The area . . . . . . occupied by the Colorado Raffinate vli11 be made available for burial of .. the leached Barium Sulfate settling pond residue and other non-compressible contaminated material. . · l)il):r: / 1 ' ~;i:J:'(i~. fi~k::; Building "D", refer Figure 1, shall be thoro~ghly \\:;.:.i~ :;~ .~ ~. .: ~:<· J·.r~~--::~ ;::;,. ·~:: j:<• ~ ..= ·.: · .. :~ ~:.:~·.::”:~f:· ~.::·.:::; :. . :.:· ·;: .•: : ·. •. : · ·.::. ..: . ., . ·, :: .· •. ·•·· :. …., :.: :. • • .., · ·: .. !1~ • ……. ;..: ··-=-;.. •• .-.’: ·,.r~· .. , •. ._.:;,_ ,, •. ,. .. –<..- ¢. --·~ . ,. , from the site. Building "N', an office, 118", a garage and dining area, and· "C", an equiprrent storage area will not tequi re extensive decant amination .. Dirt, debris and other material deposited \•lithin Building "011 duti ng the drying operation VIi 11 be r!:moved and buried,. a long \~ith slightly contaminated original earth, on top of the Barium ·sulfate.· The top layer of earth on al1 contaminated areas \•Ji11 be removed and buried until radiation levels have been reduced to be1m·l AEC limits. · 3 Guidelines for the burial pits \•Jill .comply viith good engi~eering practices as \'tell as the rules and regulations of your Commission. A11 pits wi11 be of sufficient size to insure a m{nimum of four feet earth cover·. on the finished installation; All excavations will be sealed on the top and bottom with a four inch (4 11 ) thick asphaltic layer. If 11\•tet" conditions are ~ncountered while opening the pit, a11 sides \•till receive the asphaltic seal. All areas \•li11 be scraped c1ean· of contaminated earth sufficiently d~ep to insure a maximum gross radiation level of 0.05 mR/hr. The entir~ site \'Jill bQ graded to insure proper drainage \·lith no_ unsightl_y nXlunds or dcpressi ons. · It is the desire of Cotter Corporation to reutrn to its Lessor land which will in no \•Jay be 1 i mi ted in its useful ness or va 1 ue and \·till in no \'lay endanger the surrounding environment and its inhabitants. RETA-780 . •. . ... :. ·,·· RETA & 780 Latty Avenue c D CD Settling Ponds FIGURE 1 Sketch not to scale .. · . . . .' . . Colorado Raffi natc ·coTTER CORPORATION LATTY AVENUE STORAGE SITE H/\ZLENOOV, ~flSSOUR I - . ,• 4 :.: .· I ' . . '' ·- - · ·--.--· .. UNITED STATES ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION WASHINGTON, D.C. 2.0545 Hr . E. :· • ·’ ·••• ;’,\);:~X,; .\>U ,. ; :. i?.,;\i:J:;ii>:•.’fl’ “”‘·’~'(“~eJf,:%:o:.,~c’6 :;:: ” ;;, ., ., .• • .~’ ‘”” ·· <• ·"'~'' • • •·i' • · ·.' · ... ~(~:.2!;~~ UNITED STATES ATOMIC ENERGY COMMIS$lON WASHINGTON. D.C. 20545 I }.l (., June 28, 1971 J j.!pi r.:·~} r ~ ( ·. ~~ 1:. ~. =- ~ ·; "':"'! • I l . . I I ... ""'I ;. i I H<'·.< '7 . MEMORANDUN FOR THE F ILBS I •".!.~. . .. · ··· · ·· · · · ··· ·· · · , . I y_ .. I SUBJECT: MEETING \'liTH REPRESENTATIVbftOF':1COTTER. CORPORATION . ! . At the request of -Senator Peter Dominick (Colorado), Commissioner· Johnson met \>lith David Marcott, Executive
Vice President, and Ed\vard NcGrath, ~vashington Counsel,
for Cotte·r Corporation on June 2.4, 1971. Ot;hers
a~tending were Dr. Martin Biles and U. M. Staebler.
Messrs~ Marcott and McGrath had previously met with
personnel from the Division of Materials Licensing and
Wast~ and Scrap Nanageme_nt.
Cotter Corporation acquired radioactive residues from
early AEC milling operations Hhich had been moved from .
the St. Louis Airport to Hazelwood, a site in metropolitan
St. Louis, by a Baltimore Corporation which went bankrupt.
The material \·las acquired from Commercial Discount, the
fin.ancer of the orig.in~J. .p.urc.h?Js.c _fr.om the AEC. Selected
materials were sent to a plant .at Canyon City for recovery
of valuable minerals. Cotter has ~bout 15,000 tons of
materials to be disposed of in addition to about a thous and
.drums of contaminated materials which can be disposed of .
commercially at a reasonable cost.· They are committed
t o restore the property on ·which the material is stored
but have found that disposal on-site is not acceptable
under present r~gulations. The $150,000 they had allowed
for on-site disposal is to be compared with an estimate ·
of $2 million they have received from Nuclear Engineering
for commercial disposal at a site about 200 miles ar..;ay.
Mr . Marcott ·would Like to dispos~ of the material at the
quarry formerly usqd by the AEC near the St. Louis
operati.ons which is about -30 miles from the Hazelv10od
site. or: Biles reviewed the situation at the quarry,
concluding that disposal there would not be acceptable.
The basis for the estimate of $2 ~illion for disposal·
by Nuclear Engineering \-Tas not· knm’ln but it did not
seem consistent with the usual ~harge af ~bo~t-$0 .70
per cu.· ft. for commerciu.l disposa l _plus transportation.
(Separate information indicates this estimate may.include
decontamination of buildings at the site.) Dr.· Biles
suggested that ·transporting the material to Colorado
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and adding it to ex~ sting piles of taili~gs there might
be worth exploring since the material .i s similar and.
would be quite small in quantity rela tiv~ t o these piles.
It was agreed that: . . · I .·
I
a) Both Cotter and AEC (Bi les ) \•lould look into
t he feas ibility of di~posal on other tailings
piles (i.ncluding licensing) .
b) Cotter t’lould provide a breakdown. of the $2
million estimate from Nuclear Engineering . . .
c) AE~ (Biles) would i nvestigate the. basis b?ing
used for private commercial disposal —
in particular whether pricing on ~ unit volume
basis ·was reasonable for this kind of ma~erial.
d) Cotter vlould provide a summary of the history
of the material and the contract obligations
rela~ive to ul timate disposal associated with
the various transfers . UO.l•~ l”‘~-~-J .. ~OJ.V .~ :~;:;.
· cc; General · Hanagcr
Dr. Martin Biles, OS
R. O’Neill, Cong. Rel.
H. Nowak, NSM
C .. H~nd~rs~n, DR
•2/, ) 7J .• ~b.£. 6./v’
U. M. Staebler
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UNITED STATES
ot J. T.~.·.